Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Primary School Teachers and Parents Perception of Peer Bullying Among Children in Iran: A Qualitative Study

Somaieh Salehi 1 , * , Ahmed Patel 2 , 3 , Mona Taghavi 4 and Minoo Pooravari 5
Authors Information
1 PhD, Family and Child Clinic, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, IR Iran
2 PhD, School of Information Science and Technology, Technology and Management, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
3 School of Science, Engineering and Computing, Kingston University, United Kingdom
4 Master, School of Engineering, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia
5 PhD student, School of Psychology and Educational Studies, AL Zahra University, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: September 2016, 10 (3); e1865
  • Published Online: August 17, 2016
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: April 20, 2015
  • Revised: November 18, 2015
  • Accepted: January 18, 2016
  • DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-1865

To Cite: Salehi S, Patel A, Taghavi M, Pooravari M. Primary School Teachers and Parents Perception of Peer Bullying Among Children in Iran: A Qualitative Study, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2016 ; 10(3):e1865. doi: 10.17795/ijpbs-1865.

Copyright © 2016, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Materials and Methods
3. Results
4. Discussion
  • 1. Olweus D. Bully/victim problems among schoolchildren: Basic facts and effects of a school based intervention program. The development and treatment of childhood aggression. 1991; 17: 411-48
  • 2. DSM-5 Development. Q 02.1 callous and unemotional specifier for conduct disorder-proposed revision. 2012;
  • 3. Aluede O, Adeleke F, Omoike D, Afen-Akpaida J. A review of the extent, nature, characteristics and effects of bullying behaviour in schools. J Instruct Psychol. 2008; 35(2): 151-9
  • 4. Smokowski PR, Kopasz KH. Bullying in school: An overview of types, effects, family characteristics, and intervention strategies. Child Schools. 2005; 27(2): 101-10
  • 5. Craig WM, Pepler DJ. Understanding bullying: From research to practice. Can Psychol. 2007; 48(2): 86
  • 6. Berthold KA, Hoover JH. Correlates of bullying and victimization among intermediate students in the Midwestern USA. School Psychol Int. 2000; 21(1): 65-78
  • 7. Bronfenbrenner U, Morris PA. The ecology of developmental processes. Handbook of child psychology, theoretical models of human development. 1998; : 993-1028
  • 8. Due P, Merlo J, Harel-Fisch Y, Damsgaard MT, Holstein BE, Hetland J, et al. Socioeconomic inequality in exposure to bullying during adolescence: a comparative, cross-sectional, multilevel study in 35 countries. Am J Public Health. 2009; 99(5): 907-14[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Tepetaş GS, Akgun E, Altun SA. Identifying preschool teachers’ opinion about peer bullying. Proc Soc Behav Sci. 2010; 2(2): 1675-9[DOI]
  • 10. Stockdale MS, Hangaduambo S, Duys D, Larson K, Sarvela PD. Rural elementary students', parents', and teachers' perceptions of bullying. Am J Health Behav. 2002; 26(4): 266-77[PubMed]
  • 11. Kartal H, Bilgin A. Bullying in elementary schools: From the perspectives of the students, the teachers and the parents. Elementary Educ Online. 2008; 7(2): 485-95
  • 12. Yoon JS, Kerber K. Bullying: Elementary Teachers' Attitudes and Intervention Strategies. Res Educ. 2003; 69(1): 27-35[DOI]
  • 13. Keenan T, Evans S, Crowley K. An introduction to child development. 2016;
  • 14. Rícan P, Klicperova M, Koucka T. Families of bullies and their victims: A children's view. Studia Psychologica. 1993; 35(3): 261-6
  • 15. Giles-Sims J. Culturally Shaped Patterns of Disciplining Children. J Fam Issues. 2005; 26(2): 196-218[DOI]
  • 16. Kamyab S. An overview of the education system of Islamic Republic of Iran. 2011;
  • 17. Mazaheri P. 50% of parents do not know nurturing and training. 2010;
  • 18. Bahrami F. Efficacy of problem solving skills education for high school girl students aggression reduction. (in Persian) Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol. 2006; 11(4): 467-9
  • 19. Moradi M, Etemadi A, Naeimabbadi E. The effectiveness of group counseling based on william glasser’s choice theory with bully victimizing students to increase ability to encounter with bullying behaviors. Q J Psychol Stud. 2011; 6(4): 11-28
  • 20. Cheraghi A, Piskin M. A comparison of peer bullying among high school students in Iran and Turkey. Proc Soc Behav Sci. 2011; 15: 2510-20[DOI]
  • 21. AkaIran A. How to behave with aggressive children. 2012;
  • 22. Ary D, Jacobs LC, Sorensen CK, Walker D. Introduction to research in education. 2013;
  • 23. Maxwell JA. Designing a qualitative study. Handbook of applied social research methods. 1998; : 69-100
  • 24. David M, Sutton CD. Social research: The basics. 2004;
  • 25. Bryman A. Quantitative and qualitative research: further reflections on their integration. Mixing methods: qualitative and quantitative research. 1992; : 57-78
  • 26. Dick B. Grounded theory: a thumbnail sketch. 2005;
  • 27. Collins M. But is it Bullying? Teaching Positive Relationships to Young Children. 2004;
  • 28. Dake JA, Price JH, Telljohann SK, Funk JB. Teacher perceptions and practices regarding school bullying prevention. J Sch Health. 2003; 73(9): 347-55[PubMed]
  • 29. Hanish LD, Eisenberg N, Fabes RA, Spinrad TL, Ryan P, Schmidt S. The expression and regulation of negative emotions: risk factors for young children's peer victimization. Dev Psychopathol. 2004; 16(2): 335-53[PubMed]
  • 30. Girls and bullying: The experiences of parents. 2006;
  • 31. Bodine RJ, Crawford DK. The handbook of conflict resolution education: A guide to building quality programs in schools. 1998;
  • 32. Siegler RS, DeLoache JS, Eisenberg N. How children develop. 2003;
  • 33. Goldbaum S, Craig WM, Pepler D, Connolly J. Developmental Trajectories of Victimization. J Appl School Psychol. 2003; 19(2): 139-56[DOI]
  • 34. Bandura A. Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. 1986;
  • 35. Batsche GM, Knoff HM. Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools. School Psychol Rev. 1994; 23: 165
  • 36. Eslea M, Smith PK. The long‐term effectiveness of anti‐bullying work in primary schools. Educ Res. 1998; 40(2): 203-18[DOI]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments