Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Demographic and Diagnostic Features of 3147 Inpatients With Mood Disorders in Iran

Atefeh Ghanbari Jolfaei 1 , Pari Ghadamgahi 2 , Masoud Ahmadzad-Asl 3 , * and Amir Shabani 2
Authors Information
1 Minimally Invasive Surgery Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Bipolar Disorders Research Group, Mental Health Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Bipolar Disorders Research Group, Mental Health Research Center, Tehran Psychiatry Institute, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: September 2016, 10 (3); e2298
  • Published Online: August 14, 2016
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: May 7, 2015
  • Revised: April 17, 2016
  • Accepted: August 5, 2016
  • DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-2298

To Cite: Ghanbari Jolfaei A, Ghadamgahi P, Ahmadzad-Asl M, Shabani A. Demographic and Diagnostic Features of 3147 Inpatients With Mood Disorders in Iran, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2016 ; 10(3):e2298. doi: 10.17795/ijpbs-2298.

Copyright © 2016, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). 2013;
  • 2. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62(6): 617-27[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. Nierenberg AA, Akiskal HS, Angst J, Hirschfeld RM, Merikangas KR, Petukhova M, et al. Bipolar disorder with frequent mood episodes in the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R). Mol Psychiatry. 2010; 15(11): 1075-87[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Weissman MM, Leaf PJ, Tischler GL, Blazer DG, Karno M, Bruce ML, et al. Affective disorders in five United States communities. Psychol Med. 1988; 18(1): 141-53[PubMed]
  • 5. Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GJ, Faravelli C, Greenwald S, Hwu HG, et al. Cross-national epidemiology of major depression and bipolar disorder. JAMA. 1996; 276(4): 293-9[PubMed]
  • 6. Wilhelm K, Mitchell P, Slade T, Brownhill S, Andrews G. Prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV major depression in an Australian national survey. J Affect Disord. 2003; 75(2): 155-62[PubMed]
  • 7. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005; 62(6): 593-602[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Whiteford HA, Degenhardt L, Rehm J, Baxter AJ, Ferrari AJ, Erskine HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2013; 382(9904): 1575-86[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Stewart WF, Ricci JA, Chee E, Hahn SR, Morganstein D. Cost of lost productive work time among US workers with depression. JAMA. 2003; 289(23): 3135-44[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Kessler RC, Akiskal HS, Ames M, Birnbaum H, Greenberg P, Hirschfeld RM, et al. Prevalence and effects of mood disorders on work performance in a nationally representative sample of U.S. workers. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(9): 1561-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Rihmer Z. Prediction and prevention of suicide in bipolar disorders. Clin Neuropsych. 2005; 2(1): 48-54
  • 12. Tondo L, Lepri B, Baldessarini RJ. Suicidal status during antidepressant treatment in 789 Sardinian patients with major affective disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008; 118(2): 106-15[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Gitlin MJ, Swendsen J, Heller TL, Hammen C. Relapse and impairment in bipolar disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 1995; 152(11): 1635-40[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Goodwin FK, Jamison KR. Manic depressive illness. 1990;
  • 15. McMahon FJ, Stine OC, Chase GA, Meyers DA, Simpson SG, DePaulo JR. Influence of clinical subtype, sex, and lineality on age at onset of major affective disorder in a family sample. Am J Psychiatry. 1994; 151(2): 210-5[PubMed]
  • 16. Angst J, Preisig M. Course of a clinical cohort of unipolar, bipolar and schizoaffective patients. Results of a prospective study from 1959 to 1985. Schweiz Arch Neurol Psychiatr (1985). 1995; 146(1): 5-16[PubMed]
  • 17. Winokur G, Coryell W, Endicott J, Akiskal H. Further distinctions between manic-depressive illness (bipolar disorder) and primary depressive disorder (unipolar depression). Am J Psychiatry. 1993; 150(8): 1176-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. Peselow ED, Dunner DL, Fieve RR, Deutsch SI, Rubinstein ME. Age of onset of affective illness. Psychiatr Clin (Basel). 1982; 15(3): 124-32[PubMed]
  • 19. Rouillon F. Epidemiology of bipolar disorders. Current studies [in French]. Encephale. 1997; 23 Spec No 1: 7-11[PubMed]
  • 20. Shaabani A, Eftekhar M, Danesh AB, Ahmadkhaniha HR, Hakim Shoushtari M, Ghalehbandi M, et al. Degree of recurrence of type I bipolar disorder: a 17 month follow-up of patients with first-episode mania. Adv Cogn Sci. 2006; 8(3): 33-42
  • 21. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV). 2013;
  • 22. Regier DA, Myers JK, Kramer M, Robins LN, Blazer DG, Hough RL, et al. The NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area program. Historical context, major objectives, and study population characteristics. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1984; 41(10): 934-41[PubMed]
  • 23. Leboyer M, Maier W, Teherani M, Lichtermann D, D'Amato T, Franke P, et al. The reliability of the SADS-LA in a family study setting. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1991; 241(3): 165-9[PubMed]
  • 24. Mohammadi MR, Ghanizadeh H, Noorbala AA, Davidian H, Malek Afzali AA, Naghavi HR. Prevalence of mood disorders in Iran. Iran J Psychiatry. 2006; 1(2): 59-64
  • 25. Kogan JN, Otto MW, Bauer MS, Dennehy EB, Miklowitz DJ, Zhang HW, et al. Demographic and diagnostic characteristics of the first 1000 patients enrolled in the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD). Bipolar Disord. 2004; 6(6): 460-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 26. Leverich GS, Post RM. Life charting the course of bipolar disorder. Current Rev Mood Anxiety disorders. 1996; 1: 48-61
  • 27. Leverich GS, Post RM. Life charting of affective disorders. Cns Spectrums. 1998; 3: 21-37
  • 28. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Schettler PJ, Coryell W, Endicott J, Maser JD, et al. A prospective investigation of the natural history of the long-term weekly symptomatic status of bipolar II disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003; 60(3): 261-9[PubMed]
  • 29. Vieta E, Gasto C, Otero A, Nieto E, Vallejo J. Differential features between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder. Compr Psychiatry. 1997; 38(2): 98-101[PubMed]
  • 30. Baek JH, Park DY, Choi J, Kim JS, Choi JS, Ha K, et al. Differences between bipolar I and bipolar II disorders in clinical features, comorbidity, and family history. J Affect Disord. 2011; 131(1-3): 59-67[DOI][PubMed]
  • 31. Fornaro M, Perugi G, Gabrielli F, Prestia D, Mattei C, Vinciguerra V, et al. Lifetime co-morbidity with different subtypes of eating disorders in 148 females with bipolar disorders. J Affect Disord. 2010; 121(1-2): 147-51[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Akiskal HS, Kilzieh N, Maser JD, Clayton PJ, Schettler PJ, Traci Shea M, et al. The distinct temperament profiles of bipolar I, bipolar II and unipolar patients. J Affect Disord. 2006; 92(1): 19-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Harvey PD. Cognitive impairments in major depression and bipolar disorders. Psychiatry (Edgmont). 2007; 4(1): 12-4[PubMed]
  • 34. Murphy FC, Sahakian BJ. Neuropsychology of bipolar disorder. Br J Psychiatry Suppl. 2001; 41-7[PubMed]
  • 35. Sweeney JA, Kmiec JA, Kupfer DJ. Neuropsychologic impairments in bipolar and unipolar mood disorders on the CANTAB neurocognitive battery. Biol Psychiatry. 2000; 48(7): 674-84[PubMed]
  • 36. Lamers F, Burstein M, He JP, Avenevoli S, Angst J, Merikangas KR. Structure of major depressive disorder in adolescents and adults in the US general population. Br J Psychiatry. 2012; 201: 143-50[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Shabani A, Naserbakht M, Afkham Ebrahimi A, Ahmadi Vazmalaei H, Ghanbari Jolfaei A. Suicidal attempt in bipolar disorder: low significance of comorbidity with opioid dependence. Iran J Psychiatry. 2009; 4(2): 74-8
  • 38. Suppes T, Leverich GS, Keck PE, Nolen WA, Denicoff KD, Altshuler LL, et al. The Stanley Foundation Bipolar Treatment Outcome Network. II. Demographics and illness characteristics of the first 261 patients. J Affect Disord. 2001; 67(1-3): 45-59[PubMed]
  • 39. Lish JD, Dime-Meenan S, Whybrow PC, Price RA, Hirschfeld RM. The National Depressive and Manic-depressive Association (DMDA) survey of bipolar members. J Affect Disord. 1994; 31(4): 281-94[PubMed]
  • 40. Barikani A, Ebrahim SM, Navid M. The cause of divorce among men and women referred to marriage and legal office in Qazvin, Iran. Glob J Health Sci. 2012; 4(5): 184-91[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Hoodfar H. Devices and desires: population policy and gender roles in the Islamic Republic. Middle East Rep. 1994; 24(190): 11-7[PubMed]
  • 42. Bramlett MD, Mosher WD. Cohabitation, marriage, divorce, and remarriage in the United States. Vital Health Stat 23. 2002; (22): 1-93[PubMed]
  • 43. Leboyer M, Henry C, Paillere-Martinot ML, Bellivier F. Age at onset in bipolar affective disorders: a review. Bipolar Disord. 2005; 7(2): 111-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 44. Benazzi F. Classifying mood disorders by age-at-onset instead of polarity. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009; 33(1): 86-93[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Shabani A, Jolfaei AG, Vazmalaei HA, Ebrahimi AA, Naserbakht M. Clinical and course indicators of bipolar disorder type I with and without opioid dependence. J Res Med Sci. 2010; 15(1): 20-6[PubMed]
  • 46. Ghanbari Jolfaei A, Shabani A. A comparative study of prevalence for anxiety disorders in Bipolar I patients with or without opioid dependency [in Persian]. J Kermanshah Univ Med Sci. 2013; 16(8): 665-72
  • 47. Fava M, Rush AJ, Wisniewski SR, Nierenberg AA, Alpert JE, McGrath PJ, et al. A comparison of mirtazapine and nortriptyline following two consecutive failed medication treatments for depressed outpatients: a STAR*D report. Am J Psychiatry. 2006; 163(7): 1161-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 48. Shabani A, Taheri A, Azadforouz S, Abbasi CN, Mousavi Z, Zangeneh K, et al. Bipolar Disorder Patients Follow-up (BDPF): methods and materials. J Res Med Sci. 2010; 15(4): 229-34[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments