Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Prazosin for Trauma Nightmares and Sleep Disturbances in Combat Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Habibolah Khazaie 1 , Marzie Nasouri 1 and Mohammad Rasoul Ghadami 1 , *
Authors Information
1 Sleep Disorders Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: September 2016, 10 (3); e2603
  • Published Online: August 6, 2016
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: June 10, 2015
  • Revised: November 4, 2015
  • Accepted: July 18, 2016
  • DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-2603

To Cite: Khazaie H, Nasouri M, Ghadami M R. Prazosin for Trauma Nightmares and Sleep Disturbances in Combat Veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2016 ; 10(3):e2603. doi: 10.17795/ijpbs-2603.

Copyright © 2016, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. van Liempt S, Vermetten E, Geuze E, Westenberg HG. Pharmacotherapy for disordered sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder: a systematic review. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006; 21(4): 193-202[PubMed]
  • 2. Friedman MJ. Future pharmacotherapy for post-traumatic stress disorder: prevention and treatment. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2002; 25(2): 427-41[PubMed]
  • 3. Spoormaker VI, Montgomery P. Disturbed sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder: secondary symptom or core feature? Sleep Med Rev. 2008; 12(3): 169-84[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. van Liempt S. Sleep disturbances and PTSD: a perpetual circle? Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2012; 3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 5. Geracioti TD, Baker DG, Ekhator NN, West SA, Hill KK, Bruce AB, et al. CSF norepinephrine concentrations in posttraumatic stress disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2001; 158(8): 1227-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Southwick SM, Krystal JH, Morgan CA, Johnson D, Nagy LM, Nicolaou A, et al. Abnormal noradrenergic function in posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50(4): 266-74[PubMed]
  • 7. Mellman TA, Kumar A, Kulick-Bell R, Kumar M, Nolan B. Nocturnal/daytime urine noradrenergic measures and sleep in combat-related PTSD. Biol Psychiatry. 1995; 38(3): 174-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Charney DS, Deutch AY, Krystal JH, Southwick SM, Davis M. Psychobiologic mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50(4): 295-305[PubMed]
  • 9. Thompson CE, Taylor FB, McFall ME, Barnes RF, Raskind MA. Nonnightmare distressed awakenings in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder: response to prazosin. J Trauma Stress. 2008; 21(4): 417-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Hoff DJ, Hart KL, Holmes HA, Warren D, et al. A parallel group placebo controlled study of prazosin for trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 61(8): 928-34[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Raskind MA, Peskind ER, Kanter ED, Petrie EC, Radant A, Thompson CE, et al. Reduction of nightmares and other PTSD symptoms in combat veterans by prazosin: a placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 2003; 160(2): 371-3[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Germain A, Richardson R, Moul DE, Mammen O, Haas G, Forman SD, et al. Placebo-controlled comparison of prazosin and cognitive-behavioral treatments for sleep disturbances in US Military Veterans. J Psychosom Res. 2012; 72(2): 89-96[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. VA/DoD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Treatment of Nightmares with Prazosin, Traumatic Stress. 2010;
  • 14. Blake DD, Weathers FW, Nagy LM, Kaloupek DG, Gusman FD, Charney DS, et al. The development of a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. J Trauma Stress. 1995; 8(1): 75-90[PubMed]
  • 15. Kobayashi I, Huntley E, Lavela J, Mellman TA. Subjectively and objectively measured sleep with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma exposure. Sleep. 2012; 35(7): 957-65[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Goodarzi MA. Evaluating reliability and validity of the Mississippi scale for post-traumatic stress disorder in Shiraz. J Psychol. 2003; 7(2): 153-77
  • 17. Firoozabadi A, Asgharnejad Farid AA, Mirzaei J, Shareh H. Normalization of clinician administered PTSD Scale-version 1 (CAPS-1) for psychological effects due to war. [in Persian]. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2010; 15(4): 334-42
  • 18. Tahmasian M, Khazaie H, Sepehry AA, Russo MB. Ambulatory monitoring of sleep disorders. J Pak Med Assoc. 2010; 60(6): 480-7[PubMed]
  • 19. Tahmasian M, Khazaie H, Golshani S, Avis KT. Clinical application of actigraphy in psychotic disorders: a systematic review. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2013; 15(6): 359[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Khazaie H, Tahmasian M, Ghadami MR, Safaei H, Ekhtiari H, Samadzadeh S, et al. The effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on cognitive functions of medical residents. Iran J Psychiatry. 2010; 5(2): 74-7[PubMed]
  • 21. Khazaie H, Ghadami MR, Knight DC, Emamian F, Tahmasian M. Insomnia treatment in the third trimester of pregnancy reduces postpartum depression symptoms: a randomized clinical trial. Psychiatry Res. 2013; 210(3): 901-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Raskind MA, Thompson C, Petrie EC, Dobie DJ, Rein RJ, Hoff DJ, et al. Prazosin reduces nightmares in combat veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002; 63(7): 565-8[PubMed]
  • 23. Peskind ER, Bonner LT, Hoff DJ, Raskind MA. Prazosin reduces trauma-related nightmares in older men with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 2003; 16(3): 165-71[PubMed]
  • 24. Hardman JG, Limbird LE, Milinoff PB, Ruddon RW. Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 1996; : 229
  • 25. Jaillon P. Clinical pharmacokinetics of prazosin. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1980; 5(4): 365-76[PubMed]
  • 26. Taylor FB, Lowe K, Thompson C, McFall MM, Peskind ER, Kanter ED, et al. Daytime prazosin reduces psychological distress to trauma specific cues in civilian trauma posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2006; 59(7): 577-81[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Ghadami MR, Khaledi-Paveh B, Nasouri M, Khazaie H. PTSD-related paradoxical insomnia: an actigraphic study among veterans with chronic PTSD. J Inj Violence Res. 2015; 7(2): 54-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Ross RJ, Ball WA, Dinges DF, Kribbs NB, Morrison AR, Silver SM, et al. Motor dysfunction during sleep in posttraumatic stress disorder. Sleep. 1994; 17(8): 723-32[PubMed]
  • 29. Woodward SH. Neurobiological Perspectives on Sleep in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Neurobiological and Clinical Consequences of Stress: From Normal Adaptation to PTSD. 1995; : 315-34
  • 30. Pellejero T, Monti JM, Baglietto J, Jantos H, Pazos S, Cichevski V, et al. Effects of methoxamine and alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin and yohimbine, on the sleep-wake cycle of the rat. Sleep. 1984; 7(4): 365-72[PubMed]
  • 31. Kleinlogel H. Effects of the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocker prazosin on EEG sleep and waking stages in the rat. Neuropsychobiology. 1989; 21(2): 100-3[PubMed]
  • 32. Makela JP, Hilakivi IT. Effect of alpha-adrenoceptor blockade on sleep and wakefulness in the rat. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1986; 24(3): 613-6[PubMed]
  • 33. Hilakivi I, Leppavuori A. Effects of methoxamine, and alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist, and prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist, on the stages of the sleep-waking cycle in the cat. Acta Physiol Scand. 1984; 120(3): 363-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Hilakivi I, Leppavuori A, Putkonen PT. Prazosin increases paradoxical sheep. Eur J Pharmacol. 1980; 65(4): 417-20[PubMed]
  • 35. Krystal AD, Davidson JR. The use of prazosin for the treatment of trauma nightmares and sleep disturbance in combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007; 61(8): 925-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Breslau N, Roth T, Burduvali E, Kapke A, Schultz L, Roehrs T. Sleep in lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder: a community-based polysomnographic study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004; 61(5): 508-16[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Mellman TA, Nolan B, Hebding J, Kulick-Bell R, Dominguez R. A polysomnographic comparison of veterans with combat-related PTSD, depressed men, and non-ill controls. Sleep. 1997; 20(1): 46-51[PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments