Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Algorithm Characterization of Suicide: Introducing an Informative Categorization System

Mohsen Rezaeian 1 , * and Mehran Zarghami 2 , 3
Authors Information
1 Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, Occupational Environmental Research Center, Rafsanjan Medical School, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, IR Iran
2 Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Sari, IR Iran
3 Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Addiction Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Mazandaran, Sari, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: September 2016, 10 (3); e4544
  • Published Online: August 15, 2016
  • Article Type: Commentaries
  • Received: October 31, 2014
  • Revised: April 11, 2015
  • Accepted: October 29, 2015
  • DOI: 10.17795/ijpbs-4544

To Cite: Rezaeian M, Zarghami M. Algorithm Characterization of Suicide: Introducing an Informative Categorization System, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2016 ; 10(3):e4544. doi: 10.17795/ijpbs-4544.

Copyright © 2016, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Introduction
2. Existing Classification Systems and Their Limitations
3. The Fundamentals of any New Categorization Systems
4. Proposing a New Categorization System
5. Concluding Remarks
  • 1. World Health Organization: Suicide Prevention. 2005;
  • 2. Gunnell DJ. The epidemiology of suicide. Int Rev Psychiatr . 2009; 12(1): 21-6[DOI]
  • 3. Durkheim E. Suicide: a study in sociology. 1952;
  • 4. Berkman LF, Glass T, Brissette I, Seeman TE. From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Soc Sci Med . 2000; 51(6): 843-57[DOI]
  • 5. Lester D. A regional analysis of suicide and homicide rates in the USA: search for broad cultural patterns. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1988; 23(3): 202-5[PubMed]
  • 6. Hood-Williams J. Studying suicide. Health Place . 1996; 2(3): 167-77[DOI]
  • 7. Marusic A, Farmer A. Toward a new classification of risk factors for suicide behavior. Crisis. 2001; 22(2): 43-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. A longitudinal twin study of 1-year prevalence of major depression in women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1993; 50(11): 843-52[PubMed]
  • 9. Simon RI. Passive suicidal ideation: Still a high-risk clinical scenario thorough risk assessment may reveal active suicide ideation. Curr Psychiatry. 2014; 13(3): 13-5
  • 10. Eliason S. Murder-suicide: a review of the recent literature. J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2009; 37(3): 371-6[PubMed]
  • 11. Marzuk PM, Tardiff K, Hirsch CS. The epidemiology of murder-suicide. JAMA. 1992; 267(23): 3179-83[PubMed]
  • 12. Sisask M, Mark L, Varnik A. Internet comments elicited by media portrayal of a familicide-suicide case. Crisis. 2012; 33(4): 222-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Scheinin L, Rogers CB, Sathyavagiswaran L. Familicide-suicide: a cluster of 3 cases in Los Angeles County. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2011; 32(4): 327-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Gambetta D. Making Sense of Suicide Missions. 2005;
  • 15. Lester D. Female suicide bombers and burdensomeness. Psychol Rep. 2010; 106(1): 160-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Aggarwal N. Rethinking suicide bombing. Crisis. 2009; 30(2): 94-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Kazim SF, Aly Z, Bangash HK, Harchandani BP, Irfan AB, Javed SM, et al. Attitudes toward suicide bombing in Pakistan. Crisis. 2008; 29(2): 81-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 18. McCormack R, Clifford M, Conroy M. Attitudes of UK doctors towards euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a systematic literature review. Palliat Med. 2012; 26(1): 23-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 19. Sjostrand M, Helgesson G, Eriksson S, Juth N. Autonomy-based arguments against physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia: a critique. Med Health Care Philos. 2013; 16(2): 225-30[DOI][PubMed]
  • 20. Nitschke P, Stewart F. 'What's it got to do with you?' Challenging the medical profession's future in the assisted suicide debate. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2011; 45(12): 1017-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 21. Riddell S. "If assisted suicide is legalised, are nurses best placed to do it?". Nurs Times. 2011; 107(40): 11[PubMed]
  • 22. Dyer C. Panel recommends that assisted suicide be legalised in Canada. BMJ. 2011; 343(181): 7496[DOI]
  • 23. Paterson I, Forbes S. Should assisted suicide be legalised? Nurs Times. 2003; 99(9): 18-9[PubMed]
  • 24. Behuniak SM. Death with "dignity": the wedge that divides the disability rights movement from the right to die movement. Politics Life Sci. 2011; 30(1): 17-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 25. Hawton K, van Heeringen K. Suicide. Lancet. 2009; 373(9672): 1372-81[DOI]
  • 26. Rezaeian M. Suicide among young Middle Eastern Muslim females. Crisis. 2010; 31(1): 36-42[DOI][PubMed]
  • 27. Marcikic M, Vuksic Z, Dumencic B, Matuzalem E, Cacinovic V. Double suicide. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2011; 32(3): 200-1[DOI][PubMed]
  • 28. Schwartz AC, Spitalnick JS, Short DK, Garlow SJ. Suicide Pact by Mutual Simultaneous Arm Amputation. Psychosomatics. 2009; 50(6): 633-7[DOI]
  • 29. Hunt IM, While D, Windfuhr K, Swinson N, Shaw J, Appleby L, et al. Suicide pacts in the mentally ill: a national clinical survey. Psychiatry Res. 2009; 167(1-2): 131-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 30. Rastogi P, Nagesh KR. Suicide pact by hanging: a case report. Med Sci Law. 2008; 48(3): 266-8[PubMed]
  • 31. Brown M, Barraclough B. Partners in life and in death: the suicide pact in England and Wales 1988-1992. Psychol Med. 1999; 29(6): 1299-306[PubMed]
  • 32. Durkee T, Hadlaczky G, Westerlund M, Carli V. Internet pathways in suicidality: a review of the evidence. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011; 8(10): 3938-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Dunlop SM, More E, Romer D. Where do youth learn about suicides on the Internet, and what influence does this have on suicidal ideation? J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011; 52(10): 1073-80[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Ruder TD, Hatch GM, Ampanozi G, Thali MJ, Fischer N. Suicide announcement on Facebook. Crisis. 2011; 32(5): 280-2[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Mancinelli I, Comparelli A, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Mass suicide: historical and psychodynamic considerations. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2002; 32(1): 91-100[PubMed]
  • 36. Mancinelli I, Comparelli A, Girardi P, Tatarelli R. Mass suicide: a possible interpretive model. Can J Psychiatry. 2000; 45(8): 765[PubMed]
  • 37. Jauhar: mass suicide by self-immolation in Waco, Texas. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1994; 182(12): 727-8[PubMed]
  • 38. Takahashi Y. Mass suicide by members of the Japanese Friend of the Truth Church. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1989; 19(3): 289-96[PubMed]
  • 39. Robbins T. Religious mass suicide before Jonestown: the Russian Old Believers. Sociol Anal. 1986; 47(1): 1-20[PubMed]
  • 40. Das A. Farmers' suicide in India: implications for public mental health. Int J Soc Psychiatry. 2011; 57(1): 21-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Behere PB, Behere AP. Farmers' suicide in Vidarbha region of Maharashtra state: A myth or reality? Indian J Psychiatry. 2008; 50(2): 124-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Rezaeian M. Suicide clusters: introducing a novel type of categorization. Violence Vict. 2012; 27(1): 125-32[PubMed]
  • 43. Rezaeian M. The concept of disease clustering for public health specialists. Middle East J Family Med. 2009; 7: 25-7
  • 44. Rezaeian M, Dunn G, St Leger S, Appleby L. Geographical epidemiology, spatial analysis and geographical information systems: a multidisciplinary glossary. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2007; 61(2): 98-102[DOI][PubMed]
  • 45. Johansson L, Lindqvist P, Eriksson A. Teenage suicide cluster formation and contagion: implications for primary care. BMC Fam Pract. 2006; 7: 32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Haw CM. A cluster of suicides at a London psychiatric unit. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1994; 24(3): 256-66[PubMed]
  • 47. Gould MS, Wallenstein S, Kleinman M. Time-space clustering of teenage suicide. Am J Epidemiol. 1990; 131(1): 71-8[PubMed]
  • 48. Gould MS, Wallenstein S, Davidson L. Suicide clusters: a critical review. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 1989; 19(1): 17-29[PubMed]
  • 49. Jones JH, Mesoudi A. The Cultural Dynamics of Copycat Suicide. Plos One. 2009; 4(9): 7252[DOI]
  • 50. Joiner JR, Thomas E. The Clustering and Contagion of Suicide. Curr Dir Psychol Sci. 1999; 8(3): 89-92[DOI]
  • 51. Hawton K, Harriss L, Simkin S, Juszczak E, Appleby L, McDonnell R, et al. Effect of death of Diana, princess of Wales on suicide and deliberate self-harm. Br J Psychiatry. 2000; 177: 463-6[PubMed]
  • 52. Yip PS, Fu KW, Yang KC, Ip BY, Chan CL, Chen EY, et al. The effects of a celebrity suicide on suicide rates in Hong Kong. J Affect Disord. 2006; 93(1-3): 245-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 53. Ramadas S, Kuttichira P. The development of a guideline and its impact on the media reporting of suicide. Indian J Psychiatry. 2011; 53(3): 224-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 54. Shneidman E. Classification of suicidal phenomena. Bulletin Suicidol. 1968; 2: 1-9
  • 55. Beck AT, Davis JH, Frederick CJ, Perlin S, Pokorny AD, Schulman RE. Classification and nomenclature. Suicide prevention in the seventies. 1973; : 7-21
  • 56. Platt S, Bille Brahe U, Kerkhof A, Schmidtke A, Bjerke T, Crepet P, et al. Parasiticide in Europe: the WHO/EURO multicentre study on parasuicide. I. Introduction and preliminary analysis for 1989. Acta Psychiat Scand. 1992; 85(2): 97-104[DOI]
  • 57. Silverman MM. The language of suicidology. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2006; 36(5): 519-32[DOI][PubMed]
  • 58. Matarazzo BB, Clemans TA, Silverman MM, Brenner LA. The self-directed violence classification system and the columbia classification algorithm for suicide assessment: a crosswalk. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2013; 43(3): 235-49[DOI][PubMed]
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments