Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Three Months Assessment of Co-Morbid Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Substance Use Disorders in a Residential Treatment Center in Karaj

Solmaz Joekar 1 , Sanaz Joekar 1 , Fahime Fathali Lavasani 1 , 2 , * and Behrouz Birashk 1
Authors Information
1 Clinical Psychology Department, School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Tehran Institute of Psychiatry, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
2 Research Center for Addiction and Risky Behaviors (ReCARB), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: December 2018, 12 (4); e55291
  • Published Online: September 3, 2018
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: September 17, 2017
  • Revised: December 18, 2017
  • Accepted: December 30, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijpbs.55291

To Cite: Joekar S, Joekar S, Fathali Lavasani F, Birashk B . Three Months Assessment of Co-Morbid Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Substance Use Disorders in a Residential Treatment Center in Karaj, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2018 ; 12(4):e55291. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.55291.

Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Health consequences of drug misuse. NIH; 2017 March 23. Available from:
  • 2. Jane-Llopis E, Matytsina I. Mental health and alcohol, drugs and tobacco: A review of the comorbidity between mental disorders and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. Drug Alcohol Rev. 2006;25(6):515-36. doi: 10.1080/09595230600944461. [PubMed: 17132571].
  • 3. Vaughn MG, Fu Q, DeLisi M, Beaver KM, Perron BE, Howard MO. Criminal victimization and comorbid substance use and psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the NESARC. Ann Epidemiol. 2010;20(4):281-8. doi: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2009.11.011. [PubMed: 20097578]. [PubMed Central: PMC3266851].
  • 4. Tross S, Hanner J, Hu MC, Pavlicova M, Campbell A, Nunes EV. Substance use and high risk sexual behaviors among women in psychosocial outpatient and methadone maintenance treatment programs. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2009;35(5):368-74. doi: 10.1080/00952990903108256. [PubMed: 20180666]. [PubMed Central: PMC2846384].
  • 5. Najavits LM, Weiss RD, Shaw SR. The link between substance abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder in women. A research review. Am J Addict. 1997;6(4):273-83. [PubMed: 9398925].
  • 6. Farley M, Golding JM, Young G, Mulligan M, Minkoff JR. Trauma history and relapse probability among patients seeking substance abuse treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2004;27(2):161-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jsat.2004.06.006. [PubMed: 15450649].
  • 7. Hien D, Cohen L, Campbell A. Is traumatic stress a vulnerability factor for women with substance use disorders? Clin Psychol Rev. 2005;25(6):813-23. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2005.05.006. [PubMed: 15967556]. [PubMed Central: PMC3679552].
  • 8. Driessen M, Schulte S, Luedecke C, Schaefer I, Sutmann F, Ohlmeier M, et al. Trauma and PTSD in patients with alcohol, drug, or dual dependence: A multi-center study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32(3):481-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00591.x. [PubMed: 18215214].
  • 9. Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):593-602. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593. [PubMed: 15939837].
  • 10. Ouimette P, Coolhart D, Funderburk JS, Wade M, Brown PJ. Precipitants of first substance use in recently abstinent substance use disorder patients with PTSD. Addict Behav. 2007;32(8):1719-27. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.11.020. [PubMed: 17188816].
  • 11. Read JP, Brown PJ, Kahler CW. Substance use and posttraumatic stress disorders: Symptom interplay and effects on outcome. Addict Behav. 2004;29(8):1665-72. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.061. [PubMed: 15451135].
  • 12. Reynolds M, Mezey G, Chapman M, Wheeler M, Drummond C, Baldacchino A. Co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder in a substance misusing clinical population. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;77(3):251-8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.08.017. [PubMed: 15734225].
  • 13. Pirard S, Sharon E, Kang SK, Angarita GA, Gastfriend DR. Prevalence of physical and sexual abuse among substance abuse patients and impact on treatment outcomes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2005;78(1):57-64. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.09.005. [PubMed: 15769558].
  • 14. Najavits LM. Safety seeking: Therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder. In: Follette FM, Ruzek JI, editors. Cognitive-behavioral therapies for trauma. New York: The Guilford Press; 2006.
  • 15. Clark HW, Masson CL, Delucchi KL, Hall SM, Sees KL. Violent traumatic events and drug abuse severity. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2001;20(2):121-7. [PubMed: 11306214].
  • 16. Ouimette PC, Ahrens C, Moos RH, Finney JW. Posttraumatic stress disorder in substance abuse patients: Relationship to 1-year posttreatment outcomes. Psychol Addict Behav. 1997;11(1):34-47. doi: 10.1037/0893-164x.11.1.34.
  • 17. Green BL. Psychometric review of the trauma history questionnaire (self-report). In: Stamm H, editor. Measurement of stress, trauma, and adaptation. Baltimore, MD, US: The Sidran Press; 1996.
  • 18. Moradi AR, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Miraghaei A, Parhon H, Mirzaei J. The autobiographical remembering, appraisals of trauma & self definition among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychol. 2013;17(3):242-59.
  • 19. Blanchard EB, Jones-Alexander J, Buckley TC, Forneris CA. Psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL). Behav Res Ther. 1996;34(8):669-73. [PubMed: 8870294].
  • 20. McDonald SD, Calhoun PS. The diagnostic accuracy of the PTSD checklist: A critical review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2010;30(8):976-87. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2010.06.012. [PubMed: 20705376].
  • 21. Wilkins KC, Lang AJ, Norman SB. Synthesis of the psychometric properties of the PTSD checklist (PCL) military, civilian, and specific versions. Depress Anxiety. 2011;28(7):596-606. doi: 10.1002/da.20837. [PubMed: 21681864]. [PubMed Central: PMC3128669].
  • 22. Goodarzi M. Evaluating reliability and validity of the Mississippi scale for post-traumatic stress disorder in Shiraz. J Psychol. 2003;7(2):153-77.
  • 23. McLellan AT, Kushner H, Metzger D, Peters R, Smith I, Grissom G, et al. The fifth edition of the addiction severity index. J Subst Abuse Treat. 1992;9(3):199-213. doi: 10.1016/0740-5472(92)90062-s.
  • 24. Atef-Vahid M. Standardization of addiction severity index-lite version (ASI-lite version). Iranian Natl Cent Addiction Stud; 2010.
  • 25. Mohammadkhani P, Dobson KS, Amiri M, Hosseini Ghafari F. Psychometric properties of the brief symptom inventory in a sample of recovered Iranian depressed patients. Int J Clin Health Psychol. 2010;10(3):541-51.
  • 26. Derogatis LR, Melisaratos N. The brief symptom inventory: An introductory report. Psychol Med. 1983;13(3):595-605. [PubMed: 6622612].
  • 27. Meshberg-Cohen S, Presseau C, Thacker LR, Hefner K, Svikis D. Posttraumatic stress disorder, health problems, and depression among African american women in residential substance use treatment. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2016;25(7):729-37. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2015.5328. [PubMed: 27387193]. [PubMed Central: PMC4939368].
  • 28. Najavits LM, Gastfriend DR, Barber JP, Reif S, Muenz LR, Blaine J, et al. Cocaine dependence with and without PTSD among subjects in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborative Cocaine Treatment Study. Am J Psychiatry. 1998;155(2):214-9. doi: 10.1176/ajp.155.2.214. [PubMed: 9464200].
  • 29. Simonelli A, Pasquali CE, De Palo F. Intimate partner violence and drug-addicted women: From explicative models to gender-oriented treatments. Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2014;5. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v5.24496. [PubMed: 25279108]. [PubMed Central: PMC4163756].
  • 30. World Health Organization (WHO); London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM); South African Medical Research Council (SAMRC). Global and regional estimates of violence against women: Prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Press; 2013.
  • 31. Gilbert L, El-Bassel N, Rajah V, Foleno A, Frye V. Linking drug-related activities with experiences of partner violence: A focus group study of women in methadone treatment. Violence Vict. 2001;16(5):517-36. [PubMed: 11688927].
  • 32. Coffey SF, Schumacher JA, Brimo ML, Brady KT. Exposure therapy for substance abusers with PTSD: Translating research to practice. Behav Modif. 2005;29(1):10-38. doi: 10.1177/0145445504270855. [PubMed: 15557477].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments