Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Effectiveness of a Combined Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Intervention on Depression Symptoms and Quality of Life in a Group of Iranian Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Abdollah Omidi 1 and Sajedeh Hamidian 2 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran
2 Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: December 31, 2018, 12 (4); e55945
  • Published Online: September 12, 2018
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: June 21, 2017
  • Revised: April 8, 2018
  • Accepted: May 26, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijpbs.55945

To Cite: Omidi A, Hamidian S. Effectiveness of a Combined Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Intervention on Depression Symptoms and Quality of Life in a Group of Iranian Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2018 ; 12(4):e55945. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.55945.

Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Zargar F, Forouzandeh E, Mohammadi A, BagherianSararoudi R, Habibi M. [A review of mental health of Iraqi imposed war against Iran veterans 22 years after the war]. Res Behav Sci. 2012;10(6):544-53. Persian.
  • 2. Kearney DJ, McDermott K, Malte C, Martinez M, Simpson TL. Association of participation in a mindfulness program with measures of PTSD, depression and quality of life in a veteran sample. J Clin Psychol. 2012;68(1):101-16. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20853. [PubMed: 22125187].
  • 3. Roley ME, Claycomb MA, Contractor AA, Dranger P, Armour C, Elhai JD. The relationship between rumination, PTSD, and depression symptoms. J Affect Disord. 2015;180:116-21. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2015.04.006. [PubMed: 25898331].
  • 4. Rauch SA, Favorite T, Giardino N, Porcari C, Defever E, Liberzon I. Relationship between anxiety, depression, and health satisfaction among veterans with PTSD. J Affect Disord. 2010;121(1-2):165-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.05.026. [PubMed: 19535152].
  • 5. Zatzick DF, Marmar CR, Weiss DS, Browner WS, Metzler TJ, Golding JM, et al. Posttraumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans. Am J Psychiatry. 1997;154(12):1690-5. doi: 10.1176/ajp.154.12.1690. [PubMed: 9396947].
  • 6. Michael T, Halligan SL, Clark DM, Ehlers A. Rumination in posttraumatic stress disorder. Depress Anxiety. 2007;24(5):307-17. doi: 10.1002/da.20228. [PubMed: 17041914].
  • 7. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Wisco BE, Lyubomirsky S. Rethinking Rumination. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2008;3(5):400-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1745-6924.2008.00088.x. [PubMed: 26158958].
  • 8. Kong T, He Y, Auerbach RP, McWhinnie CM, Xiao J. Rumination and depression in Chinese university students: The mediating role of overgeneral autobiographical memory. Pers Individ Dif. 2015;77:221-4. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.09.035. [PubMed: 25977594]. [PubMed Central: PMC4428603].
  • 9. Querstret D, Cropley M. Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: a systematic review. Clin Psychol Rev. 2013;33(8):996-1009. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2013.08.004. [PubMed: 24036088].
  • 10. Kashdan TB, Morina N, Priebe S. Post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and depression in survivors of the Kosovo War: experiential avoidance as a contributor to distress and quality of life. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23(2):185-96. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2008.06.006. [PubMed: 18676121]. [PubMed Central: PMC2667796].
  • 11. Omidi A, Mohammadi A, Zargar F, Akbari H. Efficacy of mindfulness-based stress reduction on mood States of veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. Arch Trauma Res. 2013;1(4):151-4. doi: 10.5812/atr.8226. [PubMed: 24396769]. [PubMed Central: PMC3876494].
  • 12. Tyler Boden M, Bernstein A, Walser RD, Bui L, Alvarez J, Bonn-Miller MO. Changes in facets of mindfulness and posttraumatic stress disorder treatment outcome. Psychiatry Res. 2012;200(2-3):609-13. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2012.07.011. [PubMed: 22858251].
  • 13. Ikin JF, Creamer MC, Sim MR, McKenzie DP. Comorbidity of PTSD and depression in Korean War veterans: prevalence, predictors, and impairment. J Affect Disord. 2010;125(1-3):279-86. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.12.005. [PubMed: 20071032].
  • 14. Yazdanimehr R, Omidi A, Akbari H, Sadat Z. Mindfulness training and quality of life Among pregnant women: A randomized clinical trial. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2017;6(2). e32570. doi: 10.5812/nmsjournal.32570.
  • 15. Rohani C, Abedi HA, Langius A. The Iranian SF-12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12v2): Factorial and convergent validity, internal Consistency and test-retest in a healthy sample. Iran Rehabilitat J. 2010;8(12):4-14.
  • 16. Sharifi V, As' adi SM, Mohammadi MR, Amini H, Kaviani H, Semnani Y. [Reliabhity and capability of administration of Persian version of SCID for DSM-IV]. Adv Cognit Sci. 2004;6(1-2):10-22. Persian.
  • 17. Mohammadkhani P, Dobson K. [Psychometric coordinates of BDI-II in a large sample of the patients with major depression]. Rehabilitat psychol dis disord. 2007;8(SUPPLEMENT 29):82-8. Persian.
  • 18. Bedard M, Felteau M, Marshall S, Cullen N, Gibbons C, Dubois S, et al. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy reduces depression symptoms in people who have a traumatic brain injury: results from a randomized controlled trial. Eur Psychiatr. 2013;28:1. doi: 10.1016/s0924-9338(13)76515-5.
  • 19. Marchand WR. Mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and Zen meditation for depression, anxiety, pain, and psychological distress. J Psychiatr Pract. 2012;18(4):233-52. doi: 10.1097/01.pra.0000416014.53215.86. [PubMed: 22805898].
  • 20. O'Donnell ML, Creamer M, Pattison P. Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression following trauma: understanding comorbidity. Am J Psychiatry. 2004;161(8):1390-6. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.161.8.1390. [PubMed: 15285964].
  • 21. Nolen-Hoeksema S, Watkins ER. A heuristic for developing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology: Explaining multifinality and divergent trajectories. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2011;6(6):589-609. doi: 10.1177/1745691611419672. [PubMed: 26168379].
  • 22. Farchione TJ, Fairholme CP, Ellard KK, Boisseau CL, Thompson-Hollands J, Carl JR, et al. Unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: a randomized controlled trial. Behav Ther. 2012;43(3):666-78. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2012.01.001. [PubMed: 22697453]. [PubMed Central: PMC3383087].
  • 23. Liotti G, Prunetti E. Metacognitive deficits in trauma-related disorders: Contingent on interpersonal motivational contexts. Metacognition and severe adult mental disorders: From basic research to treatment. 2010:196-214.
  • 24. Hamidian S, Omidi A, Mousavinasab SM, Naziri G. The effect of combining mindfulness-based cognitive therapy with pharmacotherapy on depression and emotion regulation of patients with dysthymia: A clinical study. Iran J Psychiatry. 2016;11(3):166-72. [PubMed: 27928248]. [PubMed Central: PMC5139951].
  • 25. Kolahkaj B, Zargar F. Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction on anxiety, depression and stress in women with multiple sclerosis. Nurs Midwifery Stud. 2015;4(4). e29655. doi: 10.17795/nmsjournal29655. [PubMed: 26835467]. [PubMed Central: PMC4733502].
  • 26. Steele K, van der Hart O, Nijenhuis ER. Phase-oriented treatment of structural dissociation in complex traumatization: overcoming trauma-related phobias. J Trauma Dissociation. 2005;6(3):11-53. doi: 10.1300/J229v06n03_02. [PubMed: 16172081].
  • 27. Falkenstrom F. Studying mindfulness in experienced meditators: A quasi-experimental approach. Personality and Individual Differences. 2010;48(3):305-10. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2009.10.022.
  • 28. Dobie DJ, Kivlahan DR, Maynard C, Bush KR, Davis TM, Bradley KA. Posttraumatic stress disorder in female veterans: association with self-reported health problems and functional impairment. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(4):394-400. doi: 10.1001/archinte.164.4.394. [PubMed: 14980990].
  • 29. White L. Mindfulness in nursing: an evolutionary concept analysis. J Adv Nurs. 2014;70(2):282-94. doi: 10.1111/jan.12182. [PubMed: 23772683].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .
Readers' Comments