Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar
Crossmark

Internal Consistency and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI)

Saeed Imani 1 , Jaber Alizadeh Goradel 1 , Sadegh Mousavi 1 and Alireza Noroozi ORCID 2 , 3 , *
Authors Information
1 Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Neuroscience and Addiction Studies Department, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: June 30, 2019, 13 (2); e55958
  • Published Online: June 16, 2019
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: June 21, 2017
  • Revised: March 4, 2019
  • Accepted: May 21, 2019
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijpbs.55958

To Cite: Imani S, Goradel J A , Mousavi S, Noroozi A. Internal Consistency and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Smartphone Addiction Inventory (SPAI), Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2019 ; 13(2):e55958. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.55958.

Abstract
Copyright © 2019, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
Footnotes
References
  • 1. Poushter J. Smartphone ownership and internet usage continues to climb in emerging economies. February 22, 2016. Available from: http://www.pewglobal.org/2016/02/22/smartphone-ownership-and-internet-usage-continues-to-climb-in-emerging-economies/.
  • 2. Iran ICT. Press conference of Iran ICT Minister: How many Iranians use smartphones. May 18, 2015. Available from: http://www.khabaronline.ir/detail/417657/ict/ict.
  • 3. Grant JE, Potenza MN, Weinstein A, Gorelick DA. Introduction to behavioral addictions. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2010;36(5):233-41. doi: 10.3109/00952990.2010.491884. [PubMed: 20560821]. [PubMed Central: PMC3164585].
  • 4. Grant JE, Atmaca M, Fineberg NA, Fontenelle LF, Matsunaga H, Janardhan Reddy YC, et al. Impulse control disorders and "behavioural addictions" in the ICD-11. World Psychiatry. 2014;13(2):125-7. doi: 10.1002/wps.20115. [PubMed: 24890056]. [PubMed Central: PMC4102276].
  • 5. American Psychiatric Association (APA). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edition: DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
  • 6. Lin YH, Chang LR, Lee YH, Tseng HW, Kuo TB, Chen SH. Development and validation of the smartphone addiction inventory (SPAI). PLoS One. 2014;9(6). e98312. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098312. [PubMed: 24896252]. [PubMed Central: PMC4045675].
  • 7. Al-Barashdi H, Bouazza A, Jabur N. Smartphone addiction among university undergraduates: A literature review. J Sci Res Rep. 2015;4(3):210-25. doi: 10.9734/jsrr/2015/12245.
  • 8. Billieux J, Maurage P, Lopez-Fernandez O, Kuss DJ, Griffiths MD. Can disordered mobile phone use be considered a behavioral addiction? An update on current evidence and a comprehensive model for future research. Curr Addict Rep. 2015;2(2):156-62. doi: 10.1007/s40429-015-0054-y.
  • 9. Lin YH, Lin YC, Lee YH, Lin PH, Lin SH, Chang LR, et al. Time distortion associated with smartphone addiction: Identifying smartphone addiction via a mobile application (App). J Psychiatr Res. 2015;65:139-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.04.003. [PubMed: 25935253].
  • 10. Chóliz M. Mobile-phone addiction in adolescence: the test of mobile phone dependence (TMD). Prog Health Sci. 2012;2(1):33-44.
  • 11. Billieux J, Van der Linden M, Rochat L. The role of impulsivity in actual and problematic use of the mobile phone. Appl Cogn Psychol. 2008;22(9):1195-210. doi: 10.1002/acp.1429.
  • 12. Chen L, Yan Z, Tang W, Yang F, Xie X, He J. Mobile phone addiction levels and negative emotions among Chinese young adults: The mediating role of interpersonal problems. Comput Human Behav. 2016;55:856-66. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.10.030.
  • 13. Toda M, Monden K, Kubo K, Morimoto K. Mobile phone dependence and health-related lifestyle of university students. J Soc Behav Pers. 2006;34(10):1277-84. doi: 10.2224/sbp.2006.34.10.1277.
  • 14. Wang JL, Wang HZ, Gaskin J, Wang LH. The role of stress and motivation in problematic smartphone use among college students. Comput Human Behav. 2015;53:181-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.07.005.
  • 15. Merlo LJ, Stone AM, Bibbey A. Measuring problematic mobile phone use: Development and preliminary psychometric properties of the PUMP scale. J Addict. 2013;2013:912807. doi: 10.1155/2013/912807. [PubMed: 24826371]. [PubMed Central: PMC4008508].
  • 16. Martinotti G, Villella C, Di Thiene D, Di Nicola M, Bria P, Conte G, et al. Problematic mobile phone use in adolescence: A cross-sectional study. J Pub Health. 2011;19(6):545-51. doi: 10.1007/s10389-011-0422-6.
  • 17. Roberts JA, Yaya LH, Manolis C. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students. J Behav Addict. 2014;3(4):254-65. doi: 10.1556/JBA.3.2014.015. [PubMed: 25595966]. [PubMed Central: PMC4291831].
  • 18. Bianchi A, Phillips JG. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2005;8(1):39-51. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2005.8.39. [PubMed: 15738692].
  • 19. Koo HY. [Development of a cell phone addiction scale for korean adolescents]. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2009;39(6):818-28. Korean. doi: 10.4040/jkan.2009.39.6.818. [PubMed: 20071895].
  • 20. Kwon M, Lee JY, Won WY, Park JW, Min JA, Hahn C, et al. Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS). PLoS One. 2013;8(2). e56936. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056936. [PubMed: 23468893]. [PubMed Central: PMC3584150].
  • 21. Tossel C, Kortum P, Shepard C, Rahmati A, Zhong L. Exploring smartphone addiction: Insights from long-term telemetric behavioral measures. Int J Interact Mobile Technol (iJIM). 2015;9(2):37-43. doi: 10.3991/ijim.v9i2.4300.
  • 22. Pavia L, Cavani P, Di Blasi M, Giordano C. Smartphone addiction inventory (SPAI): Psychometric properties and confirmatory factor analysis. Comput Human Behav. 2016;63:170-8. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.039.
  • 23. Terwee CB, Bot SD, de Boer MR, van der Windt DA, Knol DL, Dekker J, et al. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60(1):34-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2006.03.012. [PubMed: 17161752].
  • 24. Comrey LA, Lee HB. A first course in factor analysis. 2nd ed. Hillside, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1992.
  • 25. Young KS. Internet addiction: The emergence of a new clinical disorder. Cyberpsychol Behav. 1998;1(3):237-44. doi: 10.1089/cpb.1998.1.237.
  • 26. Widyanto L, McMurran M. The psychometric properties of the internet addiction test. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2004;7(4):443-50. doi: 10.1089/cpb.2004.7.443. [PubMed: 15331031].
  • 27. Chang MK, Man Law SP. Factor structure for young’s Internet addiction test: A confirmatory study. Comput Human Behav. 2008;24(6):2597-619. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2008.03.001.
  • 28. Mohammadsalehi N, Mohammadbeigi A, Jadidi R, Anbari Z, Ghaderi E, Akbari M. Psychometric properties of the Persian language version of yang internet addiction questionnaire: An explanatory factor analysis. Int J High Risk Behav Addict. 2015;4(3). e21560. doi: 10.5812/ijhrba.21560. [PubMed: 26495253]. [PubMed Central: PMC4609498].
  • 29. Putzer GJ, Park Y. Are physicians likely to adopt emerging mobile technologies? Attitudes and innovation factors affecting smartphone use in the Southeastern United States. Perspect Health Inf Manag. 2012;9:1b. [PubMed: 22737094]. [PubMed Central: PMC3329206].
  • 30. Tahamtan I, Pajouhanfar S, Sedghi S, Azad M, Roudbari M. Factors affecting smartphone adoption for accessing information in medical settings. Health Info Libr J. 2017;34(2):134-45. doi: 10.1111/hir.12174. [PubMed: 28406547].
  • 31. Schnall R, Cho H, Mangone A, Pichon A, Jia H. Mobile health technology for improving symptom management in low income persons living with HIV. AIDS Behav. 2018;22(10):3373-83. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-2014-0. [PubMed: 29299790]. [PubMed Central: PMC6034982].
  • 32. Brzan PP, Rotman E, Pajnkihar M, Klanjsek P. Mobile applications for control and self management of diabetes: A systematic review. J Med Syst. 2016;40(9):210. doi: 10.1007/s10916-016-0564-8. [PubMed: 27520615].
  • 33. Plow M, Golding M. Using mhealth technology in a self-management intervention to promote physical activity among adults with chronic disabling conditions: Randomized controlled trial. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2017;5(12). e185. doi: 10.2196/mhealth.6394. [PubMed: 29196279]. [PubMed Central: PMC5732326].
  • 34. Schulte M, Liang D, Wu F, Lan YC, Tsay W, Du J, et al. A Smartphone application supporting recovery from heroin addiction: Perspectives of patients and providers in China, Taiwan, and the USA. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2016;11(3):511-22. doi: 10.1007/s11481-016-9653-1. [PubMed: 26846506]. [PubMed Central: PMC4974153].
  • 35. Berman AH, Gajecki M, Fredriksson M, Sinadinovic K, Andersson C. Mobile phone apps for university students with hazardous alcohol use: Study protocol for two consecutive randomized controlled trials. JMIR Res Protoc. 2015;4(4). e139. doi: 10.2196/resprot.4894. [PubMed: 26693967]. [PubMed Central: PMC4704963].
  • 36. Koob GF, Volkow ND. Neurobiology of addiction: A neurocircuitry analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(8):760-73. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00104-8. [PubMed: 27475769]. [PubMed Central: PMC6135092].
  • 37. Yau YH, Potenza MN. Gambling disorder and other behavioral addictions: Recognition and treatment. Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2015;23(2):134-46. doi: 10.1097/HRP.0000000000000051. [PubMed: 25747926]. [PubMed Central: PMC4458066].
  • 38. Tang Z, Zhang H, Yan A, Qu C. Time is money: The decision making of smartphone high users in gain and loss intertemporal choice. Front Psychol. 2017;8:363. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00363. [PubMed: 28344568]. [PubMed Central: PMC5344929].
  • 39. Lin YH, Chiang CL, Lin PH, Chang LR, Ko CH, Lee YH, et al. Proposed diagnostic criteria for smartphone addiction. PLoS One. 2016;11(11). e0163010. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163010. [PubMed: 27846211]. [PubMed Central: PMC5112893].
  • 40. Lee HK, Kim JH, Fava M, Mischoulon D, Park JH, Shim EJ, et al. Development and validation study of the smartphone overuse screening questionnaire. Psychiatry Res. 2017;257:352-7. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.07.074. [PubMed: 28800515].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:

Author(s):

Article(s):

Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments