It was a cross sectional study. Statistical population of the study was divorce applicant couples (281 people referred to courts in the first four months of 2014) referred to family courts or divorce reduction centers (green opportunities) of Urmia welfare organization, Urmia, Iran. Accordingly, 55 couples were selected by convenience sampling method. The total sample involved 110 people, 55 females and 55 males. It should be mentioned that others who referred to divorce reduction centers individually (husband or wife) were excluded from the study and the statistical sample involved 55 couples referred to the same center. The questionnaires were filled by the couples who applied for divorce and then, they were collected by one of the authors in the court. Anonymous questionnaire was prepared to ensure that the results obtained by the participants in the study would not hurt anyone.
Measuring instruments were as follows:
1) Interpersonal cognitive distortions scale: the scale is designed by Hommamci (2004) to assess cognitive distortions in interpersonal relationships based on Aaron T. Beck’s cognitive theory. This scale consists of 19 items (questions) in three subscales. The first subscale is called rejection in interpersonal relationships and includes eight items. The second subscale is unrealistic expectations in relationships and consists of eight items. The third subscale is misperception of interpersonal relationships and involves three subscales. Psychometric studies reported a high psychometric quality for this scale. Its reliability was checked through internal consistency by Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest after two weeks. The results showed that the obtained Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the whole scale was 0.67, in test-retest 0.74 and for its subscales 0.72, 0.76 and 0.74, respectively (
3). Convergent validity was confirmed by correlation with other scales and factor analysis. The correlation of its scores with the scales of irrational beliefs, spontaneous thoughts and conflicts in interpersonal relationships were 0.45, 0.53 and 0.53, respectively with a significance of 0.99. The scale consists of 19 items that comprise three subscales. The first subscale is rejection in interpersonal relationships and includes eight items. The second subscale is unrealistic expectations in relationships and consists of eight items. The third subscale is misperception in interpersonal relationships and consists of three items.
- Questions of rejection in interpersonal relationships subscale: 1 - 3 - 10 - 12 - 13 - 14 - 15 - 19
- Questions of unrealistic expectations in relationships subscale: 5 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 11 - 16 - 17 - 18
- Questions of interpersonal relationships misperception subscale: 2 - 4 - 6
According to this scale, respondents are placed in four groups based on the use of their cognitive distortions: no use, little use, relative use and full use. According to the selected choice, a score between one and five is given to each question and at the end, given the total obtained score (the sum of all scores) they are classified into four groups; therefore scores below 19 indicate no cognitive distortions use; from 19 to 38 low cognitive distortions use; from 38 to 57 relative cognitive distortions use and above 76 full cognitive distortions use (
2) Larson sexual satisfaction scale: Larson sexual satisfaction scale questionnaire has 25 questions with these choices: never, rarely, sometimes and always (
7). According to this scale, respondents are divided into four groups of full satisfaction, relative satisfaction, low satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Given the selected choice in each question, each question is given a score from one to five, and at the end, based on their total score (the sum of all score) they are placed in four groups. Scores below 25 indicate no satisfaction; from 25 to 50 low satisfaction; from 50 to 100 relative satisfaction and above 100 full satisfaction. In Iran, this questionnaire was used by Shams and Mofarah in their study. Rahmani et al. used this questionnaire in their studies in 2010 and 2011 and to determine the reliability of the instruments test-retest method was used and the obtained results in 2010 and 2011 were 0.86 and 0.86, respectively ( 7).
3) Attribution style questionnaire: this questionnaire is a self-report instrument and was first used to measure individuals’ attributions for uncontrollable events. Attribution style questionnaire includes twelve hypothetical situations (six good events and six bad events). For each event, four questions are raised. The first question is about the most significant reason for the event, and although it is not used in scoring, the subject is required to respond to its following three questions. These questions include internal or external, stable or unstable and general or specific events. Scores can be given to each of the three mentioned aspects; for example, the internal-external aspect is obtained from the total score of the first question. If someone is in the position of total success and in the first question he checks items 6, 4, 2, 3, 5, 4, this person’s internal-external score will be the sum of these numbers divided by six. For attribution style questionnaire’s reliability, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.8 (
12). Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were 0.75, 0.43, 0.73, 0.74, 0.56 and 0.76 for internal failure, stable failure, total failure, internal success, stable success and total success, respectively. Cronbach’s alpha for the questionnaire was 0.74. The range of 36 questions is from 36 to 144. If the subjects’ total score is below 144, they are introvert and as their scores get closer to 36, they are more introverted. If the score is above 144, the subject is extrovert and if it is closer to 252, he is more extroverted. The questionnaire of attribution style consists of twelve hypothetical situations with six good events and six bad events. Four questions are raised for each event. The first question is about the most important cause of the event, although it is not used in scoring, it is necessary for subjects to respond to the following three questions based on these aspects: internal or external, stable (steady) or unstable and general or specific events. Scores can be considered for each of these three dimensions, for example, internal-external dimension is obtained from total score of the first question. If a person marks items 4 - 5 - 3 - 2 - 4 - 6 for success situation and the first question, the score of this person for the internal-external dimension is the sum of the numbers divided by six 24.6 = 4; therefore, the score is calculated in the same way for other dimensions such as failure situation ( 13).
Pearson correlation coefficient and T-independent groups were provided, and SPSS version 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze the data.