Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Path Analysis of Self-Efficacy, Critical Thinking Skills and Emotional Intelligence for Mental Health of Medical Students

Ali Morad Heidari Gorji 1 , Misagh Shafizad 2 , Aria Soleimani 3 , * , Morteza Darabinia 4 and Amir Hossein Goudarzian 5
Authors Information
1 Education Development Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
2 Department of Neurosurgery, Emam Khomeini Hospital, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
3 Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
4 Department of Medical, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
5 Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: 12 (4); e59487
  • Published Online: September 12, 2018
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: August 5, 2017
  • Revised: May 7, 2018
  • Accepted: May 12, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijpbs.59487

To Cite: Heidari Gorji A M, Shafizad M, Soleimani A, Darabinia M, Goudarzian A H. Path Analysis of Self-Efficacy, Critical Thinking Skills and Emotional Intelligence for Mental Health of Medical Students, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. Online ahead of Print ; 12(4):e59487. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.59487.

Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Saxena S, Funk M, Chisholm D. World health assembly adopts comprehensive mental health action plan 2013-2020. Lancet. 2013;381(9882):1970-1. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61139-3. [PubMed: 23746771].
  • 2. Jamali S, Sabokdast S, Sharif Nia H, Goudarzian AH, Beik S, Allen KA. The effect of life skills training on mental health of Iranian middle school students: A preliminary study. Iran J Psychiatry. 2016;11(4):269-72. [PubMed: 28050189]. [PubMed Central: PMC5206331].
  • 3. Slade M, Amering M, Farkas M, Hamilton B, O'Hagan M, Panther G, et al. Uses and abuses of recovery: Implementing recovery-oriented practices in mental health systems. World Psychiatry. 2014;13(1):12-20. doi: 10.1002/wps.20084. [PubMed: 24497237]. [PubMed Central: PMC3918008].
  • 4. American College Health Association. American College Health Association National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA) Spring 2005 reference group data report (Abridged). J Am Coll Health. 2006;55(1):5-16. doi: 10.3200/JACH.55.1.5-16. [PubMed: 16889310].
  • 5. Gallagher RP. National survey of college counseling centers 2014. 2015.
  • 6. Roberts M. Critical thinking and reflection in contemporary mental health care: A Foucauldian perspective. Nurse Educ Today. 2016;45:48-50. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2016.06.013. [PubMed: 27429403].
  • 7. Folkman S, Lazarus RS. Stress-processes and depressive symptomatology. J Abnorm Psychol. 1986;95(2):107-13. [PubMed: 3711433].
  • 8. Hung TM, Tang LC, Ko CJ. How mental health nurses improve their critical thinking through problem-based learning. J Nurses Prof Dev. 2015;31(3):170-5. doi: 10.1097/NND.0000000000000167. [PubMed: 25993456].
  • 9. Chan ZC. A systematic review of critical thinking in nursing education. Nurse Educ Today. 2013;33(3):236-40. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2013.01.007. [PubMed: 23394977].
  • 10. Andreou C, Papastavrou E, Merkouris A. Learning styles and critical thinking relationship in baccalaureate nursing education: A systematic review. Nurse Educ Today. 2014;34(3):362-71. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2013.06.004. [PubMed: 23830067].
  • 11. Samson PL. Critical thinking in social work education: A research synthesis. J Social Work Educ. 2016;52(2):147-56. doi: 10.1080/10437797.2016.1151270.
  • 12. Shoulders B, Follett C, Eason J. Enhancing critical thinking in clinical practice: Implications for critical and acute care nurses. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2014;33(4):207-14. doi: 10.1097/DCC.0000000000000053. [PubMed: 24895950].
  • 13. David P, Pennell ML, Foraker RE, Katz ML, Buckworth J, Paskett ED. How are previous physical activity and self-efficacy related to future physical activity and self-efficacy? Health Educ Behav. 2014;41(6):573-6. doi: 10.1177/1090198114543004. [PubMed: 25156312].
  • 14. Cascio MI, Magnano P, Elastico S, Costantino V, Zapparrata V, Battiato A. The relationship among self-efficacy beliefs, external locus of control and work stress in public setting schoolteachers. Open J Social Sci. 2014;2(11):149-56. doi: 10.4236/jss.2014.211021.
  • 15. Curtis R, Groarke A, Sullivan F. Stress and self-efficacy predict psychological adjustment at diagnosis of prostate cancer. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5569. doi: 10.1038/srep05569. [PubMed: 24993798]. [PubMed Central: PMC4081888].
  • 16. Haugland T, Wahl AK, Hofoss D, DeVon HA. Association between general self-efficacy, social support, cancer-related stress and physical health-related quality of life: A path model study in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016;14:11. doi: 10.1186/s12955-016-0413-y. [PubMed: 26787226]. [PubMed Central: PMC4717553].
  • 17. Nesami MB, Goudarzian AH, Zarei H, Esameili P, Pour MD, Mirani H. The relationship between emotional intelligence with religious coping and general health of students. Mater Sociomed. 2015;27(6):412-6. doi: 10.5455/msm.2015.27.412-416. [PubMed: 26889101]. [PubMed Central: PMC4733549].
  • 18. Malouff JM, Schutte NS, Thorsteinsson EB. Trait emotional intelligence and romantic relationship satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Am J Fam Ther. 2013;42(1):53-66. doi: 10.1080/01926187.2012.748549.
  • 19. Esmaeili R, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Goudarzian AH, Yousefi M. The effect of emotional intelligence training on the quality of working life in nurses. J Health Sci. 2015;3:241-7. doi: 10.17265/2328-7136/2015.05.006.
  • 20. Goudarzian AH, Esmaeili R, Alizadeh-Navaei R, Yousefi M, Balouchi A. Emotional intelligence training for reducing illicit drug use potential among Iranian nurses: A pilot study. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2017;11(3). e6676. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.6676.
  • 21. Bagheri-Nesami M, Kazemi A, Goudarzian AH, Nasiri F, Davari J. Association between religious coping and quality of working life in nurses. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2016;11(1). e4946. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.4946.
  • 22. Krejcie RV, Morgan DW. Determining sample size for research activities. Educ Psychol Meas. 2016;30(3):607-10. doi: 10.1177/001316447003000308.
  • 23. Sherer M, Maddux JE, Mercandante B, Prentice-Dunn S, Jacobs B, Rogers RW. The self-efficacy scale: Construction and validation. Psychol Rep. 2016;51(2):663-71. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1982.51.2.663.
  • 24. Bosscher RJ, Smit JH. Confirmatory factor analysis of the general self-efficacy scale. Behav Res Ther. 1998;36(3):339-43. [PubMed: 9642852].
  • 25. Dehghani M, Jafari Sani H, Pakmehr H, Malekzadeh A. Relationship between students’ critical thinking and self-efficacy beliefs in Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Procedia Social Behav Sci. 2011;15:2952-5. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.221.
  • 26. Facione NC, Facione PA, Sanchez CA. Critical thinking disposition as a measure of competent clinical judgment: The development of the California critical thinking disposition inventory. J Nurs Educ. 1994;33(8):345-50. [PubMed: 7799093].
  • 27. Tashi S, Mortazavi F, Yazdani S, Mottaghipour Y. [Evaluating critical thinking skills in medical students, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran]. Strides Dev Med Educ. 2012;9(2):170-8. Persian.
  • 28. Sheikhmoonesi F, Barani H, Khademloo M, Sharifian R, Jahani M, Lamsechi H. [Critical thinking abilities among students of medicine in Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, 2011]. J Mazandaran Univ Med Sci. 2013;23(98):98-103. Persian.
  • 29. Ganji H, Mirhashemi M, Sabet M. Bradberry-Greaves’ emotional intelligence test: Preliminary norming-process. J Thought Behav. 2006;1(2):23-35.
  • 30. Goldberg DP, Hillier VF. A scaled version of the general health questionnaire. Psychol Med. 2009;9(1):139. doi: 10.1017/s0033291700021644.
  • 31. de Kock FS, Gorgens-Ekermans G, Dhladhla TJ. A confirmatory factor analysis of the general health questionnaire-28 in a Black South African sample. J Health Psychol. 2014;19(10):1222-31. doi: 10.1177/1359105313488972. [PubMed: 23740263].
  • 32. Farhood LF, Dimassi H. Validation of an Arabic version of the GHQ-28 against the Beck depression inventory for screening for depression in war-exposed civilians. Psychol Rep. 2015;116(2):470-84. doi: 10.2466/08.PR0.116k23w9. [PubMed: 25826434].
  • 33. Bijnavand F, Sobhaninejad M, Nikazin A, Mohammadi Pouya S. [Surveying the relation between critical thought and quality of life, social acceptance and appreciation of medical science students]. CPAP. 2015;2(11):49-60. Persian.
  • 34. Papathanasiou IV, Kleisiaris CF, Fradelos EC, Kakou K, Kourkouta L. Critical thinking: The development of an essential skill for nursing students. Acta Inform Med. 2014;22(4):283-6. doi: 10.5455/aim.2014.22.283-286. [PubMed: 25395733]. [PubMed Central: PMC4216424].
  • 35. Brown AM. Simulation in undergraduate mental health nursing education: A literature review. Clin Simul Nurs. 2015;11(10):445-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ecns.2015.08.003.
  • 36. Austin EW, Pinkleton BE, Radanielina-Hita ML, Ran W. The role of parents' critical thinking about media in shaping expectancies, efficacy and nutrition behaviors for families. Health Commun. 2015;30(12):1256-68. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2014.930550. [PubMed: 25616579].
  • 37. Kobayashi M, Takakura M, Asikin Y, Ganaha Y, Fujita T, Yogi Y, et al. Relationship between critical-thinking and decision-making in exercise and lifestyle in adolescents. Eur J Public Health. 2016;26(suppl_1). doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckw175.110.
  • 38. Mortan RA, Ripoll P, Carvalho C, Bernal MC. Effects of emotional intelligence on entrepreneurial intention and self-efficacy. J Work Organiz Psychol. 2014;30(3):97-104. doi: 10.1016/j.rpto.2014.11.004.
  • 39. Johnson SK, Blanchard A. Emotional intelligence and mental health: Stress and symptom reporting pathways. J Mental Health Couns. 2016;38(1):79-92. doi: 10.17744/mehc.38.1.06.
  • 40. Ciarrochi JV, Deane FP. Emotional competence and willingness to seek help from professional and nonprofessional sources. Br J Guid Couns. 2010;29(2):233-46. doi: 10.1080/03069880124843.
  • 41. Sanchez-Alvarez N, Extremera N, Fernandez-Berrocal P. The relation between emotional intelligence and subjective well-being: A meta-analytic investigation. J Posit Psychol. 2015;11(3):276-85. doi: 10.1080/17439760.2015.1058968.
  • 42. Aradilla-Herrero A, Tomas-Sabado J, Gomez-Benito J. Associations between emotional intelligence, depression and suicide risk in nursing students. Nurse Educ Today. 2014;34(4):520-5. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2013.07.001. [PubMed: 23886906].
  • 43. Resurreccion DM, Salguero JM, Ruiz-Aranda D. Emotional intelligence and psychological maladjustment in adolescence: A systematic review. J Adolesc. 2014;37(4):461-72. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.03.012. [PubMed: 24793394].
  • 44. Andersson LM, Moore CD, Hensing G, Krantz G, Staland-Nyman C. General self-efficacy and its relationship to self-reported mental illness and barriers to care: A general population study. Community Ment Health J. 2014;50(6):721-8. doi: 10.1007/s10597-014-9722-y. [PubMed: 24676869].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments