Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Workplace Harassment Through the Experiences of Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study, 2017

Zahra Behboodi-Moghadam 1 , Neda Nazem Ekbatani 1 , * , Armin Zareiyan 2 and Nahid Dehghan Nayeri 3
Authors Information
1 Reproductive Health department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
2 Public Health Department, Nursing Faculty, AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: September 2018, 12 (3); e66945
  • Published Online: July 10, 2018
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: February 7, 2018
  • Revised: April 28, 2018
  • Accepted: May 25, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijpbs.66945

To Cite: Behboodi-Moghadam Z, Nazem Ekbatani N, Zareiyan A, Dehghan Nayeri N. Workplace Harassment Through the Experiences of Iranian Women: A Qualitative Study, 2017, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2018 ; 12(3):e66945. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.66945.

Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Brodsky CM. The harassed worker. Lexington: D. C. Heath; 1976.
  • 2. Noah Y. Experience of sexual harassment at work by female employees in a Nigerian work environment. Int NGO J. 2008;3(7):122-7.
  • 3. Nielsen MB, Matthiesen SB, Einarsen S. The impact of methodological moderators on prevalence rates of workplace bullying. A meta-analysis. J Occup Organiz Psychol. 2010;83(4):955-79. doi: 10.1348/096317909x481256.
  • 4. Kamal A, Tariq N. Sexual harassment experience questionnaire for workplaces of Pakistan: Development and validation. Pak J Psychol Res. 1997;12(1-2).
  • 5. Richman JA, Rospenda KM, Nawyn SJ, Flaherty JA, Fendrich M, Drum ML, et al. Sexual harassment and generalized workplace abuse among university employees: prevalence and mental health correlates. Am J Public Health. 1999;89(3):358-63. [PubMed: 10076485]. [PubMed Central: PMC1508597].
  • 6. Rospenda KM, Richman JA, Shannon CA. Prevalence and mental health correlates of harassment and discrimination in the workplace: results from a national study. J Interpers Violence. 2009;24(5):819-43. doi: 10.1177/0886260508317182. [PubMed: 18463311]. [PubMed Central: PMC3979593].
  • 7. Madison J, Minichiello V. Recognizing and labeling sex-based and sexual harassment in the health care workplace. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2000;32(4):405-10. [PubMed: 11140206].
  • 8. Raver M, Schneider L. Discrimination in organizations: An organizational-level systems perspective. 2004.
  • 9. Nielsen MB, Skogstad A, Matthiesen SB, Glaso L, Aasland MS, Notelaers G, et al. Prevalence of workplace bullying in Norway: Comparisons across time and estimation methods. Eur J Work Organiz Psychol. 2009;18(1):81-101. doi: 10.1080/13594320801969707.
  • 10. Kamchuchat C, Chongsuvivatwong V, Oncheunjit S, Yip TW, Sangthong R. Workplace violence directed at nursing staff at a general hospital in southern Thailand. J Occup Health. 2008;50(2):201-7. [PubMed: 18403873].
  • 11. Keashly L, Harvey S. Emotional Abuse in the Workplace. 2005.
  • 12. Myers M. Qualitative research and the generalizability question: Standing firm with Proteus. 2000.
  • 13. Grbich C. Qualitative data analysis: An introduction. Sage; 2012.
  • 14. Graneheim UH, Lundman B. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse Educ Today. 2004;24(2):105-12. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2003.10.001. [PubMed: 14769454].
  • 15. Chadwick S, Travaglia J. Workplace bullying in the Australian health context: a systematic review. J Health Organ Manag. 2017;31(3):286-301. doi: 10.1108/JHOM-09-2016-0166. [PubMed: 28686136].
  • 16. Hallberg LRM, Strandmark MK. Health consequences of workplace bullying: experiences from the perspective of employees in the public service sector. Int J Qual Stud Health Well-Being. 2006;1(2):109-19.
  • 17. Margaretha Strandmark K, Hallberg LRM. The origin of workplace bullying: experiences from the perspective of bully victims in the public service sector. J Nurs Manag. 2007;15(3):332-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2007.00662.x.
  • 18. Khubchandani J, Price JH. Workplace Harassment and Morbidity Among US Adults: Results from the National Health Interview Survey. J Commun Health. 2014;40(3):555-63. doi: 10.1007/s10900-014-9971-2.
  • 19. Stamarski CS, Son Hing LS. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism. Front Psychol. 2015;6. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01400.
  • 20. Guimaraes CA, Cançado VL, Lima RJC. Workplace moral harassment and its consequences: A case study in a federal higher education institution. Revista de Administracao. 2016;51(2):151-64. doi: 10.5700/rausp1231.
  • 21. Schmader T, Johns M, Forbes C. An integrated process model of stereotype threat effects on performance. Psychol Rev. 2008;115(2):336-56. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.115.2.336. [PubMed: 18426293]. [PubMed Central: PMC2570773].
  • 22. Borrell C, Artazcoz L, Gil-Gonzalez D, Perez G, Rohlfs I, Perez K. Perceived sexism as a health determinant in Spain. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2010;19(4):741-50. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2009.1594. [PubMed: 20350207].
  • 23. Tiruneh BT, Bifftu BB, Tumebo AA, Kelkay MM, Anlay DZ, Dachew BA. Prevalence of workplace violence in Northwest Ethiopia: a multivariate analysis. BMC Nurs. 2016;15:42. doi: 10.1186/s12912-016-0162-6. [PubMed: 27398068]. [PubMed Central: PMC4938930].
  • 24. Schmitt MT, Branscombe NR, Kobrynowicz D, Owen S. Perceiving Discrimination Against One’s Gender Group has Different Implications for Well-Being in Women and Men. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2016;28(2):197-210. doi: 10.1177/0146167202282006.
  • 25. McLaughlin H, Uggen C, Blackstone A. Sexual Harassment, Workplace Authority, and the Paradox of Power. Am Sociol Rev. 2012;77(4):625-47. doi: 10.1177/0003122412451728. [PubMed: 23329855]. [PubMed Central: PMC3544188].
  • 26. Hogh A, Hansen AM, Mikkelsen EG, Persson R. Exposure to negative acts at work, psychological stress reactions and physiological stress response. J Psychosom Res. 2012;73(1):47-52. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2012.04.004. [PubMed: 22691559].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments