Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Explaining Experiences of Depression in Cities Representing the Fars, Turk and Kurd Ethnic Groups of Iran: A Qualitative Study

Masoumeh Dejman 1 , 2 , Zohreh Mahmoodi 3 , * , Monir Baradaran Eftekhari 4 , Ameneh Setareh Forouzan 2 , Katayoun Falahat 2 , 4 , Mohsen Shati 5 , Arash Mirabzadeh 2 and Judy Bass 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA
2 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
3 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran
4 Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran
5 Department of Aging, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: December 2018, 12 (4); e66984
  • Published Online: September 11, 2018
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: January 31, 2018
  • Revised: May 17, 2018
  • Accepted: June 2, 2018
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijpbs.66984

To Cite: Dejman M , Mahmoodi Z, Baradaran Eftekhari M , Forouzan A S, Falahat K, et al. Explaining Experiences of Depression in Cities Representing the Fars, Turk and Kurd Ethnic Groups of Iran: A Qualitative Study, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2018 ; 12(4):e66984. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.66984.

Copyright © 2018, Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Milanovic SM, Erjavec K, Poljicanin T, Vrabec B, Brecic P. Prevalence of depression symptoms and associated socio-demographic factors in primary health care patients. Psychiatr Danub. 2015;27(1):31-7. [PubMed: 25751429].
  • 2. Kessler RC, Bromet EJ. The epidemiology of depression across cultures. Annu Rev Public Health. 2013;34:119-38. doi: 10.1146/annurev-publhealth-031912-114409. [PubMed: 23514317]. [PubMed Central: PMC4100461].
  • 3. World Health Organization. Global action plan for the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases 2013–2020. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2013.
  • 4. Mata DA, Ramos MA, Bansal N, Khan R, Guille C, Di Angelantonio E, et al. Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms among resident physicians: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2015;314(22):2373-83. doi: 10.1001/jama.2015.15845. [PubMed: 26647259]. [PubMed Central: PMC4866499].
  • 5. Sharifi V, Amin-Esmaeili M, Hajebi A, Motevalian A, Radgoodarzi R, Hefazi M, et al. Twelve-month prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders in Iran: The Iranian mental health survey, 2011. Arch Iran Med. 2015;18(2):76-84. [PubMed: 25644794].
  • 6. Kleinman A. Culture and depression. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(10):951-3. doi: 10.1056/NEJMp048078. [PubMed: 15342799].
  • 7. World Health Organization. Integrating mental health into primary care: A global perspective. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2008. Contract No.: 0028-4793 1533-4406.
  • 8. Lim N. Cultural differences in emotion: Differences in emotional arousal level between the East and the West. Integr Med Res. 2016;5(2):105-9. doi: 10.1016/j.imr.2016.03.004. [PubMed: 28462104]. [PubMed Central: PMC5381435].
  • 9. Lindquist K, Gendron M, Satpute A, Barrett L, Lewis M, Haviland-Jones J. Language and emotion: Putting words into feelings and feelings into words. Handbook of emotions. 2016.
  • 10. Saba Rasheed A, William Ming L, Majeda H. Islam 101: Understanding the religion and therapy implications. Professional psychology: Research and practice. 35. 2004. p. 635-42. doi: 10.1037/0735-7028.35.6.635.
  • 11. Douki S, Zineb SB, Nacef F, Halbreich U. Women's mental health in the Muslim world: cultural, religious, and social issues. J Affect Disord. 2007;102(1-3):177-89. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.09.027. [PubMed: 17291594].
  • 12. Lawal‐Solarin FMW. Culture and depression. In: Weiner IB, Craighead WE, editors. Corsini encyclopedia of psychology. 2010. doi: 10.1002/9780470479216.
  • 13. Davidian H. Understand and treatment of depression. Tehran: Academy of Medical Sciences of IR Iran; 2007.
  • 14. Seifsafari S, Firoozabadi A, Ghanizadeh A, Salehi A. A symptom profile analysis of depression in a sample of Iranian patients. Iran J Med Sci. 2013;38(1):22-9. [PubMed: 23645954]. [PubMed Central: PMC3642941].
  • 15. Regier DA, Kaelber CT, Rae DS, Farmer ME, Knauper B, Kessler RC, et al. Limitations of diagnostic criteria and assessment instruments for mental disorders. Implications for research and policy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998;55(2):109-15. [PubMed: 9477922].
  • 16. Ekblad S, Baarnhielm S. Focus group interview research in transcultural psychiatry: Reflections on research experiences. Transcult Psychiatr. 2002;39(4):484-500. doi: 10.1177/136346150203900406.
  • 17. Hsieh HF, Shannon SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res. 2016;15(9):1277-88. doi: 10.1177/1049732305276687.
  • 18. Betancourt TS, Speelman L, Onyango G, Bolton P. Psychosocial problems of war-affected youth in Northern Uganda: A qualitative study. Transcult Psychiatr. 2009;46(2):238-56. doi: 10.1177/1363461509105815.
  • 19. Bolton P, Neugebauer R, Ndogoni L. Prevalence of depression in rural Rwanda based on symptom and functional criteria. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2002;190(9):631-7. doi: 10.1097/01.NMD.0000030568.45847.AE. [PubMed: 12357098].
  • 20. Kleinman A, Eisenberg L, Good B. Culture, illness, and care: Clinical lessons from anthropologic and cross-cultural research. Focus. 2006;4(1):140-9. doi: 10.1176/foc.4.1.140.
  • 21. Snowden LR, Yamada AM. Cultural differences in access to care. Annu Rev Clin Psychol. 2005;1(1):143-66. doi: 10.1146/annurev.clinpsy.1.102803.143846.
  • 22. Jordans MJ, Tol WA, Komproe IH, De Jong JV. Systematic review of evidence and treatment approaches: Psychosocial and mental health care for children in war. Child Adolesc Ment Health. 2009;14(1):2-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2008.00515.x.
  • 23. Jordans MJ, Komproe IH, Ventevogel P, Tol WA, de Jong JT. Development and validation of the child psychosocial distress screener in Burundi. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2008;78(3):290-9. doi: 10.1037/a0014216. [PubMed: 19123748].
  • 24. Kohrt BA, Jordans MJ, Tol WA, Luitel NP, Maharjan SM, Upadhaya N. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: Adapting the depression self-rating scale and child PTSD symptom scale in Nepal. BMC Psychiatr. 2011;11(1):127. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-11-127. [PubMed: 21816045]. [PubMed Central: PMC3162495].
  • 25. Desjarlais R. World mental health: Problems and priorities in low-income countries. USA: Oxford University Press; 1995.
  • 26. Sadock BJ, Sadock VA, Ruiz P. Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 2000.
  • 27. Koroglu, E . Major depression. In: Koroglu, E , Gulec, C , editors. [Psychiatry Basic Book]. 2nd ed. 2007. p. 240-65. Turkish.
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments