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Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Job Motivation Among Faculty Staff in Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran

AUTHORS

Ali Morad Heidari Gorji 1 , Morteza Darabinia 2 , * , Mansour Ranjbar 1

1 Education Development Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

2 Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran

How to Cite: Heidari Gorji A M, Darabinia M, Ranjbar M. Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Job Motivation Among Faculty Staff in Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2017 ; 11(2):e8065. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.8065.

ARTICLE INFORMATION

Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: 11 (2); e8065
Published Online: December 19, 2016
Article Type: Original Article
Received: August 1, 2016
Revised: October 29, 2016
Accepted: December 9, 2016
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Abstract

Background: Based on some suggestions, emotional intelligence can affect job motivation and job performance.

Objectives: The current study aims at examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and job motivation among faculty staff of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2015.

Methods: The present descriptive correlational study was conducted on 120 faculty staff of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences using stratified random sampling method. The data collection tools included the job motivation levels questionnaire and the standard emotional intelligence questionnaire.

Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) overall score of job motivation was 173.76 ± 25.62 (confidence interval (CI) 95%: 172.03 - 175.1) and that of emotional intelligence was 116.52 ± 7.91 (CI 95%: 115.6 - 117.69). The results of the present study suggested that the overall score of emotional intelligence was significantly correlated with that of job motivation as well as with all the variables examined in the job motivation levels questionnaire (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Based on the obtained results, emotional intelligence can increase job motivation level. Therefore, improving emotional intelligence skills, contributes to job motivation levels, professional and functional progresses, and ultimate productivity and profits. Hence, universities and organizations should try to identify the factors that reduce job motivation among faculty staff and establish methods to change the situation.

Keywords

Emotional Intelligence Faculty Iran Job Motivation

Copyright © 2016, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Background

One of the main concerns of the modern organizations is to motivate their staff to work harder and be more productive (1). Creating motivation and enhancing positive motivation are efficient tools for the correct employment of human resources (2). One of the methods to promote efficiency and productivity in organizations is to focus on human motivations and promote them through improving the emotional intelligence.

Motivation is a personal characteristic that originates from the employee or the work environment. Employee motivation requires a greater attention compared to professional structures, incentive systems and technologies (1-3). Learning about the problems associated with employee motivation is one of the basics of management in any organization. Factors such as motivation and creating a suitable work environment to encouraging talents, creativities and developing a competitive environment are correlated with productivity and comprise the main means of employee adaptation to the changing conditions of time and place (4). Finding the factors and criteria that contribute to teachers’ motivation and help them be more productive can aid managers to secure and maintain committed, productive and experienced workforce (3, 4).

Neglecting the basic needs of teachers and the lack of acceptable criteria for their employment cause most of them to choose their teaching job with no motivation and enthusiasm and out of sheer necessity (5). The national education system in Iran appears to have failed to create a suitable environment for their growth and foster their motivation (2). The consequences of this issue include the many ethical, social, cultural, economic and political problems that have tainted the society, which automatically impede the development and progress of the country (1, 6). Since teachers have been important and respected members of all societies throughout history, identifying motivational factors and promoting them can help teachers be more successful and productive; thus establish better relationships of tolerance and kindness with their students and reinforce their interest in gaining knowledge in addition to promoting their self-belief and creativity (2, 7).

Familiarizing teachers with the skills that promote the components of emotional intelligence can help to achieve the highest standards of professional motivation. Based on some suggestions, emotional intelligence can affect job motivation and job performance (6, 8). But according to the accessible databases, there was no similar study in Mazandaran province.

2. Objectives

Based on the importance of the issue; the current study aims at examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and job motivation levels in faculty staff of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2015.

3. Materials and Methods

The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on a sample of faculty staff selected through stratified random sampling. Among 190 faculty staff, sample size was calculated about 120, using the Krejcie and Morgan table. The inclusion criteria were mental health (assessed by self-reporting) and lack of chronic diseases; and exclusion criteria were dissatisfaction of participants during the study. Then a trained researcher distributed the questionnaires among participants.

3.1. Data Collection

The current study examined the independent variable of emotional intelligence and the dependent variable of job motivation level in faculty staff of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. The data collection tools included demographic scale, emotional intelligence questionnaire developed by Bradberry and Greaves, and the job motivation levels questionnaire.

The standard emotional intelligence questionnaire contains 28 items scored based on a 5-point Likert scale. Items 1 - 6 measure self-awareness (given a minimum score of 6 and a maximum of 30), items 7 - 15 measure self-management (given a minimum score of 9 and a maximum of 45), items 16 - 20 measuring social awareness (given a minimum score of 5 and a maximum of 20) and items 21 - 28 measure the relationship management (given a minimum score of 8 and a maximum of 45). Scores below 59, 60 - 79, 80 - 89, and 90 - 100 are considered weak and worrying, weak-to-average, average, and high EI clusters, respectively. Also the reliability of this scale was approved in the current study by Cronbachs alpha (α = 0.741).

The job motivation levels questionnaire contains 28 items designed to cover the different dimensions of job motivation, including workload, efforts, concentration, enjoyment, intent, progress and volunteering. Items 1, 8, 15, and 22 assess workload, items 2, 9, 16, and 23 assess efforts, items 3, 10, 17 and, 24 assess concentration, items 4, 11, 18, and 25 assess enjoyment, and items 5, 12, 19, and 26 assess the intent (to stay at work). It is scored based on a 7-point Likert scale. Each item receives a minimum score of 4 and a maximum of 28. Also the reliability of this scale was approved in the current study by Cronbachs alpha (α = 0.81).

3.2. Ethical Considerations

The study protocol was approved by the ethics committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (approval code: IR.MAZUMS.REC.94-1458) from the study goals were explained to all the participants and then the participants signed written consent forms.

3.3. Statistical Procedure

The data were analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study variables including gender, level of education and work experience; data were presented as mean ± SD and, also numbers and percent. The univariate regression was used to show the relationship between the emotional intelligence and job motivation.

4. Results

There were 80 (66%) male and 40 (34%) female subjects with the mean age of 48.34 ± 3.78 years in the current study. Totally, work experience was below 20 years in 85% of the subjects and more than 20 years in 15%. Table 1 presents the mean scores of emotional intelligence, job motivation and their domains. The maximum mean value was obtained in the self-management dimension and the minimum mean value in the social awareness dimension. And the mean overall score of emotional intelligence was 116.52 in the faculty staff. Also the maximum mean value was obtained in the volunteering dimension and the minimum in the concentration dimension; the overall mean score of job motivation was 173.76 in the faculty staff.

Table 1. Emotional Intelligence, Job Motivation and its Dimensions
Job MotivationMean (SD)95% CIEmotional IntelligenceMean (SD)95% CI
Workload24.11 (3.432)23.52 - 25.02Self-awareness24.76 (4.625)23.15 - 25.03
Efforts25.59 (4.11)24.09 - 26.17Self-management38.45 (6.99)37.65 - 39.13
Concentration23.03 (3.42)22.80 - 24.16Social awareness16.93 (5.02)16.12 - 17.18
Enjoyment24.72 (3.67)23.94 - 25.19Relationship36.38 (10.960)35.63 - 37.22
Intent24.46 (3.412)24.03 - 25.04Management
Progress25.33 (2.76)24.68 - 26.03Total116.52 (7.91)115.6 - 117.69
Volunteering26.52 (3.561)25.56 - 27.09
Total173.76 (25.62)172.03 - 175.1

Abbreviations: SD, standard deviation; CI, confidence interval.

The regression analysis showed a relationship between emotional intelligence and job motivation (F = 36.36, P = 0.002). This relationship was explained according to Table 2. As shown in Table 3, there was a relationship between emotional intelligence and workload (F = 81.36, P < 0.001), efforts (F = 64.32, P = 0.01), concentration (F = 52.27, P = 0.002), enjoyment (F = 69.55, P < 0.001), intent (F = 36.24, P < 0.001), progress (F= 57.16, P<0.001), and volunteering (F = 71.06, P < 0.001).

Table 2. The Linear Model Coefficients of Emotional Intelligence and Job Motivation
CoefficientEstimated CoefficientT-StatisticP Value
StandardNon-Standard
Fixed coefficient-54.125.610.001
Emotional intelligence0.614.316.030.002
Table 3. The Linear Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and the Domains of the Job Motivation Level Questionnaire
VariablesCorrelation CoefficientCoefficient of DeterminationFP Value
Emotional intelligence
Workload0.580.336481.36< 0.001
Efforts0.440.193664.320.010
Concentration0.530.280952.270.002
Enjoyment0.380.144469.55< 0.001
Intent0.650.422536.24< 0.001
Progress0.460.2157.16< 0.001
Volunteering0.360.2871.06< 0.001

5. Discussion

According to the obtained results, there was a significant linear relationship between emotional intelligence and job motivation. The results of the current study were consistent with those of Atashpour et al. (9), Bardzil and Slaski, (10) and Haghighatjou et al. (11). Another result of the study was the significant relationship between emotional intelligence and workload that was consistent with the results obtained by Law et al. (12), and Carmeli and Josman (13). Also, there was a relationship between emotional intelligence and efforts or being hard-working which was consistent with the results obtained by Siegling et al. (14), but inconsistent with the results obtained by Weinberger (15), who suggested no significant relationships between emotional intelligence and being extra hard-working, satisfaction and efficiency. This inconsistency may be rooted in differences between study samples and cultural differences. Also, there was a relationship between emotional intelligence and enjoyment, which was consistent with the results obtained by Kafetsios and Zampetakis (16), but inconsistent with those of Weinberger (15). Emotional intelligence was significantly associated with intent (to stay at work), which was consistent with the results obtained by Joseph and Newman (5). Emotional intelligence and progress (development and success) had a significant linear relationship (P < 0.05). This finding was consistent with the result obtained by Lyons and Schneider (17), but inconsistent with those of Asqarnehjad et al. (18). This result may be due to differences between study procedure and samples. Examining the relationship between emotional intelligence and volunteering showed a significant relationship between the variables. This finding was consistent with the results obtained by Schepman and Zarate (19).

Another result of the study indicated a significant linear relationship between emotional intelligence and job motivation level. In other words, an increase in emotional intelligence increases job motivation levels as well. Therefore, emotional intelligence plays a key role in a work environment (18). Fostering employees’ emotional intelligence and promoting the skills associated with this intelligence have advantages for both organizations and staff members (19). Improving emotional intelligence skills promotes job motivation, professional development and progress, and ultimate productivity and profits (7).

Universities and organizations should identify the factors that reduce job motivation in faculty staff and find methods to change the situation. The greater the motivation of a faculty member, the more efficient his teaching is (13). Education system planners and authorities are therefore recommended to hold long-term programs and invest in training their employees on social skills and emotional intelligence and provide the necessary infrastructures to promote emotional intelligence among faculty staff, using experts of the field.

5.1. Study Limitations

One of the most important limitations of the current study was a low sample size that may result in more limitations. Therefore, future studies with larger sample sizes and on other groups of health system are recommended. It is also recommended to recognize professional and performance challenges of faculty staff’ through a group of experts, teach them time management, and provide them adequate information to reduce the pressure imposed by their workload through in-service training.

5.2. Conclusion

Based on the results of the current study, there was a significant relationship between emotional intelligence and job motivation. Hence, it seems that job motivation increases employees’ emotional intelligence.

Footnotes

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