Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Alcohol, Gender, and Psychiatric Co-Morbidity: A Study from India

Anil Kumar Buruganahalli Nagendrappa 1 , * , Shalini Mallanna 2 and Sanjay Raj G 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Psychiatry, Shridevi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Hospital, Tumkur, India
2 Department of General Medicine, Shridevi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Hospital, Tumkur, India
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: March 2018, 12 (1); e9180
  • Published Online: January 10, 2018
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: September 28, 2016
  • Revised: January 16, 2017
  • Accepted: September 18, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijpbs.9180

To Cite: Buruganahalli Nagendrappa A K, Mallanna S, Raj G S. Alcohol, Gender, and Psychiatric Co-Morbidity: A Study from India, Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2018 ; 12(1):e9180. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.9180.

Copyright © 2018, Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited
1. Background
2. Objectives
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Murthy P, Manjunatha N, Subodh BN, Chand PK, Benegal V. Substance use and addiction research in India. Indian J Psychiatry. 2010;52(Suppl 1):S189-99. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.69232. [PubMed: 21836677].
  • 2. Kessler RC, Chiu WT, Demler O, Merikangas KR, Walters EE. Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2005;62(6):617-27. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617. [PubMed: 15939839].
  • 3. Compton WM, Thomas YF, Stinson FS, Grant BF. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(5):566-76. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.5.566. [PubMed: 17485608].
  • 4. Helzer J, Burnam A, McEvoy L. Psychiatric disorders in america: The epidemiological catchment area study. Alcohol abuse and dependence. In: Robins L, Regier D, editors. New York: The Free Press; 1991. 81‑115 p.
  • 5. Hasin DS, Stinson FS, Ogburn E, Grant BF. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007;64(7):830-42. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.64.7.830. [PubMed: 17606817].
  • 6. Sanchez-Pena JF, Alvarez-Cotoli P, Rodriguez-Solano JJ. Psychiatric disorders associated with alcoholism: 2 year follow-up of treatment. Actas Esp Psiquiatr. 2012;40(3):129-35. [PubMed: 22723131].
  • 7. Regier DA, Farmer ME, Rae DS, Locke BZ, Keith SJ, Judd LL, et al. Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) Study. JAMA. 1990;264(19):2511-8. doi: 10.1001/jama.264.19.2511. [PubMed: 2232018].
  • 8. Mann K, Hintz T, Jung M. Does psychiatric comorbidity in alcohol-dependent patients affect treatment outcome? Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2004;254(3):172-81. doi: 10.1007/s00406-004-0465-6. [PubMed: 15205971].
  • 9. American Psychiatric Association . diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC; 2000.
  • 10. Stockwell T, Murphy D, Hodgson R. The severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire: its use, reliability and validity. Br J Addict. 1983;78(2):145-55. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.1983.tb05502.x. [PubMed: 6135435].
  • 11. Lecrubier Y, Sheehan DV, Weiller E, Amorim P, Bonora I, Harnett Sheehan K, et al. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). A short diagnostic structured interview: reliability and validity according to the CIDI. Eur Psychiatry. 1997;12(5):224-31. doi: 10.1016/s0924-9338(97)83296-8.
  • 12. Malik K, Benegal V, Murthy P, Chand P, Arun K, Suman LN. Clinical audit of women with substance use disorders: findings and implications. Indian J Psychol Med. 2015;37(2):195-200. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.155620. [PubMed: 25969606].
  • 13. Grover S, Irpati AS, Saluja BS, Mattoo SK, Basu D. Substance-dependent women attending a de-addiction center in North India: sociodemographic and clinical profile. Indian J Med Sci. 2005;59(7):283-91. doi: 10.4103/0019-5359.16503. [PubMed: 16062015].
  • 14. Nebhinani N, Sarkar S, Gupta S, Mattoo SK, Basu D. Demographic and clinical profile of substance abusing women seeking treatment at a de-addiction center in north India. Ind Psychiatry J. 2013;22(1):12-6. doi: 10.4103/0972-6748.123587. [PubMed: 24459367].
  • 15. Hesselbrock MN, Meyer RE, Keener JJ. Psychopathology in hospitalized alcoholics. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1985;42(11):1050-5. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1985.01790340028004. [PubMed: 4051682].
  • 16. Ross HE, Glaser FB, Germanson T. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with alcohol and other drug problems. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1988;45(11):1023-31. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.1988.01800350057008. [PubMed: 3263100].
  • 17. Powell BJ, Penick EC, Nickel EJ, Liskow BI, Riesenmy KD, Campion SL, et al. Outcomes of co-morbid alcoholic men: a 1-year follow-up. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992;16(1):131-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.1992.tb00649.x. [PubMed: 1313661].
  • 18. Reddy MP, Babu RS, Pathak SM, Venkateshwarlu S. The clinical and demographic profile of male patients with alcohol dependence syndrome. Indian J Psychol Med. 2014;36(4):418-21. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.140735. [PubMed: 25336776].
  • 19. Fillmore KM. Alcohol problems in women. When angels fail : women's drinking as cultural preoccupation and as reality. In: Wilsnack SC, Beckman LS, editors. New York: Guilford Press; 1985.
  • 20. Harrison PA, Belille CA. Women in treatment: beyond the stereotype. J Stud Alcohol. 1987;48(6):574-8. doi: 10.15288/jsa.1987.48.574. [PubMed: 3682831].
  • 21. Murthy P. Women and Drug Use in India: Substance, Women and High-Risk Assessment Study. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, United Nations Development Fund for Women. 2008. Available from:
  • 22. Potukuchi PS, Rao PG. Problem alcohol drinking in rural women of Telangana region, Andhra Pradesh. Indian J Psychiatry. 2010;52(4):339-43. doi: 10.4103/0019-5545.74309. [PubMed: 21267368].
  • 23. Wilsnack S. Women and alcohol: issues for prevention research. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Research Monograph No. 32. Patterns and trends in women's drinking: Recent findings and some implications for prevention. In: Howard J, Martin S, Mail P, Hilton M, Taylor E, editors. NIH Publication; 1996. p. 19-63.
  • 24. Stokkeland K, Hilm G, Spak F, Franck J, Hultcrantz R. Different drinking patterns for women and men with alcohol dependence with and without alcoholic cirrhosis. Alcohol Alcohol. 2008;43(1):39-45. doi: 10.1093/alcalc/agm135. [PubMed: 17942440].
  • 25. Driessen M, Veltrup C, Wetterling T, John U, Dilling H. Axis I and axis II comorbidity in alcohol dependence and the two types of alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1998;22(1):77-86. doi: 10.1111/j.1530-0277.1998.tb03619.x. [PubMed: 9514288].
  • 26. Ray R, Sharma HK. Souvenir of ANCIPS 1994. Drug addiction: An Indian perspective. In: Bashyam VP, editor. India: Indian Psychiatric Society, Madras; 1994. p. 106-9.
  • 27. Schneider U, Altmann A, Baumann M, Bernzen J, Bertz B, Bimber U, et al. Comorbid anxiety and affective disorder in alcohol-dependent patients seeking treatment: the first Multicentre Study in Germany. Alcohol Alcohol. 2001;36(3):219-23. [PubMed: 11373258].
  • 28. Benegal V, Nayak MB, Murthy P, Chandra PS, Gururaj G. Alcohol, Gender and Drinking Problems: Perspectives from low and middle income countries. Women and alcohol in India. In: Obot IS, Room R, editors. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. p. 89-123.
  • 29. Selvaraj V, Suveera P, Ashok MV, Appaya MP. Women alcoholics : are they different from men alcoholics ? Indian J Psychiatry. 1997;39(4):288-93. [PubMed: 21584094].
  • 30. Hernandez-Avila CA, Rounsaville BJ, Kranzler HR. Opioid-, cannabis- and alcohol-dependent women show more rapid progression to substance abuse treatment. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2004;74(3):265-72. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.02.001. [PubMed: 15194204].
  • 31. Haavio-Mannila E, Konlula OW, Martin S, Sprecher S. Sex, alcohol and gender : A study of finnish university students. Nord Sexol. 1990;8(4):268-81.
  • 32. Kumar VS. Bioethics in India:proceedings of the international bioethics workshop in Madras: Biomanagement of Biogeoresources, University of Madras. Behavioural malignancy: alcoholism, a bleak future? In: Azariah J AHMD, editor. Eubios Ethics Institute; 1997. p. 16-9.
  • 33. Kapoor SL, Pavamani V, Mittal S. Substance abuse among women in India. Report submitted to the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India and United Nations International Drug Control Programme. 2001, [2013 July 27]. Available from:
  • 34. Annis HM, Graham JM. Profile types on the Inventory of Drinking Situations: Implications for relapse prevention counseling. Psychol Addict Behav. 1995;9(3):176-82. doi: 10.1037/0893-164x.9.3.176.
  • 35. Redgrave GW, Swartz KL, Romanoski AJ. Alcohol misuse by women. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2003;15(3):256-68. doi: 10.1080/0954026031000136875. [PubMed: 15276964].
  • 36. Greenfield SF. Women and Alcohol Use Disorders. Harvard Rev Psychiatry. 2002;10(2):76-85. doi: 10.1080/10673220216212.
  • 37. Benegal V, Sreejayn M. Substance Use among Women in India. Drug Abuse: News-n-View. 2007:9-13.
  • 38. Klimkiewicz A, Klimkiewicz J, Jakubczyk A, Kieres-Salomonski I, Wojnar M. [Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part II. Pathogenesis and treatment]. Psychiatr Pol. 2015;49(2):277-94. doi: 10.12740/PP/26071. [PubMed: 26093592].
  • 39. Morgenstern J, Langenbucher J, Labouvie E, Miller KJ. The comorbidity of alcoholism and personality disorders in a clinical population: prevalence rates and relation to alcohol typology variables. J Abnorm Psychol. 1997;106(1):74-84. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.106.1.74. [PubMed: 9103719].
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments