Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

Published by: Kowsar

Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Quality of Life in Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders (SAC-QoL)

Ali Soltaninejad 1 , * , Ernst von Kardorff 1 , Mohammad Kamali 2 and Mahin Eslami Shahrbabaki 3
Authors Information
1 Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany
2 Department of Rehabilitation Administration, Faculty of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran
3 Faculty of Medicine, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, IR Iran
Article information
  • Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: June 2017, 11 (2); e9195
  • Published Online: May 5, 2017
  • Article Type: Original Article
  • Received: October 12, 2016
  • Revised: January 30, 2017
  • Accepted: March 23, 2017
  • DOI: 10.5812/ijpbs.9195

To Cite: Soltaninejad A, Kardorff E V, Kamali M, Eslami Shahrbabaki M. Development and Validation of a Questionnaire to Measure Quality of Life in Caregivers of Patients with Schizophrenia and Affective Disorders (SAC-QoL), Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2017 ; 11(2):e9195. doi: 10.5812/ijpbs.9195.

Copyright © 2017, Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Background
2. Objective
3. Materials and Methods
4. Results
5. Discussion
  • 1. Study protocol for the World Health Organization project to develop a Quality of Life assessment instrument (WHOQOL). Qual Life Res. 1993; 2(2): 153-9[PubMed]
  • 2. Vella SL, Pai N. The measurement of burden of care in serious mental illness: a qualitative review. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2013; 47(3): 222-34[DOI][PubMed]
  • 3. von Kardorff E, Soltaninejad A, Kamali M, Eslami Shahrbabaki M. Family caregiver burden in mental illnesses: The case of affective disorders and schizophrenia - a qualitative exploratory study. Nord J Psychiatry. 2016; 70(4): 248-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 4. Chan S, Yu Iu W. Quality of life of clients with schizophrenia. J Adv Nurs. 2004; 45(1): 72-83[PubMed]
  • 5. Martire LM, Hinrichsen GA, Morse JQ, Reynolds C3, Gildengers AG, Mulsant BH, et al. The Mood Disorder Burden Index: a scale for assessing the burden of caregivers to adults with unipolar or bipolar disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2009; 168(1): 67-77[DOI][PubMed]
  • 6. Wong DF, Lam AY, Chan SK, Chan SF. Quality of life of caregivers with relatives suffering from mental illness in Hong Kong: roles of caregiver characteristics, caregiving burdens, and satisfaction with psychiatric services. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2012; 10: 15[DOI][PubMed]
  • 7. Richieri R, Boyer L, Reine G, Loundou A, Auquier P, Lancon C, et al. The Schizophrenia Caregiver Quality of Life questionnaire (S-CGQoL): development and validation of an instrument to measure quality of life of caregivers of individuals with schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2011; 126(1-3): 192-201[DOI][PubMed]
  • 8. Gater A, Rofail D, Tolley C, Marshall C, Abetz-Webb L, Zarit SH, et al. "Sometimes It's Difficult to Have a Normal Life": Results from a Qualitative Study Exploring Caregiver Burden in Schizophrenia. Schizophr Res Treatment. 2014; 2014: 368215[DOI][PubMed]
  • 9. Caqueo-Urizar A, Gutierrez-Maldonado J, Miranda-Castillo C. Quality of life in caregivers of patients with schizophrenia: a literature review. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2009; 7: 84[DOI][PubMed]
  • 10. Angermeyer MC, Schulze B, Dietrich S. Courtesy stigma--a focus group study of relatives of schizophrenia patients. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2003; 38(10): 593-602[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Yousefy AR, Ghassemi GR, Sarrafzadegan N, Mallik S, Baghaei AM, Rabiei K. Psychometric properties of the WHOQOL-BREF in an Iranian adult sample. Community Ment Health J. 2010; 46(2): 139-47[DOI][PubMed]
  • 12. Golics C. The conceptualisation, development and validation of a generic health-related family quality of life measure. 2013;
  • 13. Yeasmin S, Rahman KF. Triangulation'research method as the tool of social science research. Bup J. 2012; 1(1): 154-63
  • 14. Minaya P, Baumstarck K, Berbis J, Goncalves A, Barlesi F, Michel G, et al. The CareGiver Oncology Quality of Life questionnaire (CarGOQoL): development and validation of an instrument to measure the quality of life of the caregivers of patients with cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2012; 48(6): 904-11[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Schene AH, Tessler RC, Gamache GM. Instruments measuring family or caregiver burden in severe mental illness. Soc Psychiatr Psychiatr Epidemiol. 1994; 29(5): 228-40
  • 16. Ferrans CE, Powers MJ. Psychometric assessment of the Quality of Life Index. Res Nurs Health. 1992; 15(1): 29-38[PubMed]
  • 17. WHOQOL-BREF: introduction, administration, scoring and generic version of the assessment: field trial version. 1996;
  • 18. Strauss A, Corbin J. Basics of qualitative research. 1990; 15
  • 19. Schreier M. Qualitative content analysis in practice. 2012;
  • 20. Polit-O'Hara D, Beck CT. Essentials of nursing research: Methods, appraisal, and utilization. 2006; 1
  • 21. Crocker L, Algina J. Introduction to classical and modern test theory. 1986;
  • 22. Psychometric theory. 1994;
  • 23. Kaiser HF, Caffrey J. Alpha Factor Analysis. Psychometrika. 1965; 30: 1-14[PubMed]
  • 24. Carey RG, Seibert JH. A patient survey system to measure quality improvement: questionnaire reliability and validity. Med Care. 1993; 31(9): 834-45[PubMed]
  • 25. Campbell DT, Fiske DW. Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychol Bull. 1959; 56(2): 81-105[PubMed]
  • 26. Cronbach LJ. Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika. 1951; 16(3): 297-334[DOI]
  • 27. Brace N, Snelgar R, Kemp R. SPSS for Psychologists. 2012;
  • 28. Kalantari K. Data processing and analysis in socio-economic research. 2008;
  • 29. Pashasharifi H. The fundamentals of psychometry and the assessment of psychology [In Persian]. 1995;
  • 30. Kline P. An easy guide to factor analysis. 2014;
  • 31. Slevin ML, Plant H, Lynch D, Drinkwater J, Gregory WM. Who should measure quality of life, the doctor or the patient? Br J Cancer. 1988; 57(1): 109-12[PubMed]
  • 32. Aghili R, Khamseh ME, Malek M, Banikarimi AS, Baradaran HR, Ebrahim Valojerdi A. Development and validation of diabetes empowerment questionnaire in Iranian people with type 2 diabetes. Int Nurs Rev. 2013; 60(2): 267-73[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Canam C, Acorn S. Quality of life for family caregivers of people with chronic health problems. Rehabil Nurs. 1999; 24(5): 192-6[PubMed]
  • 34. Grover S, Dutt A. Perceived burden and quality of life of caregivers in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011; 65(5): 416-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Gutierrez-Maldonado J, Caqueo-Urizar A, Kavanagh DJ. Burden of care and general health in families of patients with schizophrenia. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2005; 40(11): 899-904[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Dimitriou P, Anthony D, Dyson S. Quality of life for patients with schizophrenia living in the community in Greece. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2009; 16(6): 546-52[DOI][PubMed]
  • 37. Bengtsson-Tops A, Hansson L. Subjective quality of life in schizophrenic patients living in the community. Relationship to clinical and social characteristics. Eur Psychiatry. 1999; 14(5): 256-63[PubMed]
  • 38. Narvaez JM, Twamley EW, McKibbin CL, Heaton RK, Patterson TL. Subjective and objective quality of life in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2008; 98(1-3): 201-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 39. Cardoso CS, Caiaffa WT, Bandeira M, Siqueira AL, Abreu MN, Fonseca JO. Factors associated with low quality of life in schizophrenia. Cad Saude Publica. 2005; 21(5): 1338-40[PubMed]
  • 40. Caron J, Mercier C, Diaz P, Martin A. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of quality of life in patients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2005; 137(3): 203-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. White Y, Curtis J, Alshowkan A. Quality of life for people with schizophrenia: a literature review. Arab J Psychiatr. 2012; 23(2): 122-31
  • 42. Zendjidjian X, Richieri R, Adida M, Limousin S, Gaubert N, Parola N, et al. Quality of life among caregivers of individuals with affective disorders. J Affect Disord. 2012; 136(3): 660-5[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Narasipuram S, Kasimahanti S. Quality of life and perception of burden among caregivers of persons with mental illness. Life. 2012; 21: 23
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments